highly irregular
5
Pounded yam stickness scale 0-10
YamStic_Meas_0to10
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
Stems per plant computation per plant
stnp
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber beetle incidence computation %
Tbeti
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Flowering time computation in days
DF
IITA
A.Amele
Twining direction estimation 1-2
IITA
A. Amele
Pounded yam texture estimation 1-3 scale
Txt_PY
IITA
A.mele
Canopy architecture estimation 1-4
Canopy
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Boiled yam fibrousness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Average tuber width computation in cm
tbrwidth
IITA
A.Amele
Root knot nematode incidence computation %
R_Kni
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Starch grain size computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Number of nodes carrying cataphylles before first true leaf counting/plant
Cirad
D.Cornet
Stem diameter computation in mm
stemdim
IITA
A.Amele
Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
Established plants counting/plot
Estbp-N
IITA
A.Amele
Bulbil presence estimation 0&1
AeTuber
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam hardness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd
DAEGR
IITA
A.Amele
Granular
100
Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Aetbrin
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh whiteness computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Number of leaves per plant count
IITA
A.Amele
Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Boiled yam taste estimation 1-5 scale
Taste_BY
IITA
A.mele
Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4
S_Brs
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Seedling survival rate percentage
IITA
A.Amele
50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFemer
IITA
A.Amele
Number of dry rot tubers count
IITA
A.Amele
Absence of lumps
10
Sprout length measurement in cm
SPRTL
IITA
A.Amele
Symptom on >51% of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue and covering a signifcant proprotion of the leaf surface. Areas with less than 1 cm width are coalescing to bigger spots also. Yellowing of green tissue is intense around the spots areas.
4
Oval
2
like
4
pounded yam color estimation 1-5 scale
Color_PY
IITA
A.mele
Field establishment rate compuation in %
Estbp-ratio
IITA
A.Amele
fruit set number percentage
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Twining habit estimation 0-1
TWNH
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber flesh brownness computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_head
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Total tubers per plant computation
IITA
A.Amele
Seeds germinated counting
IITA
A.Amele
Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Severe necrosis and death of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue more than 1.5 cm of diameter and covering a great proprotion of the leaf surface. Yellowing of the gree tissue is generalised in the leaf blade.
5
Plant stand harvested count
No_stdh
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber color uniformity computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant
IITA
A.Amele
Seed germination rate percentage
GR
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Pollinated florets counting
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Medium (50% of the plants are still green or on the onset of senescence. Only 50% plants in a plot with 25% of the leaves showing senescence or slight yellowing
5
Maximum ground cover computation in %
Cirad
D.Cornet
Big tuber yield computation in t/ha
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Boiled yam brownness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd
Polldate
IITA
A.Amele
Earliness of emergence computation in number of days from planting to 50% sprouts emergence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg
MTWPL
IITA
A.Amele
Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days
DM
IITA
A.Amele
Dry matter content percentage
TDMC
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Plant sex estimation 0-4
plntsex
flrsex
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf position estiamtion 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
Number of branches per plant count
IITA
A.Amele
Duration of heterophyllic period computation in days after planting
Cirad
D.Cornet
Boiled yam color estimation 1-5 scale
Color_BY
IITA
A.mele
Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg
Aetubwtp
IITA
A.Amele
Long (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at three month after harvesting time)
4
50% sprout emergence time computation in days
DyFemer
IITA
A.Amele
Virus incidence computation %
VRSI
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Springness estimation 1-2
Strepdym
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3
IITA
A.Amele
Vine cutting establishment rate percentage
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam texture estimation 1-5 scale
Txt_BY
IITA
A.mele
Times to bulbil initiation computation
Dayaetbrin
IITA
A.Amele
Growth cycle length computation in days between 5% emergence and 95% senescence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Tuber flour protein content computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Stickiness estimation 1-3
Con_Stick_PY
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Fruit set number estimation 1-3
FRTINT
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DateHS
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber average weight computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg
Stbrwt
IITA
A.Amele
Smooth
1
Tuber flesh color computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Stem hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Flowering intensity estimation 0-9
FLRI
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Total tubers per plot computation
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg
Btbrwt
IITA
A.Amele
Total tuber yield computation in t/ha
TubYld
IITA
A.Amele
Big tubers per plant computation
IITA
A.Amele
Low
0
Boiled yam black spots presence scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Absent
0
Pounded yam mouldability scale 0-10
YamMoul_Meas_0to10
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
Absent
0
Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1
Thorn
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
no thorns or spines on tuber surface
0
Dark green
3
Smoothness estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Present
100
Plant type estimation 1-3
GH
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber shape estimation 1-4
TUBSHA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
First sprout emergence time computation in days
Emerday
IITA
A.Amele
Anthracnose symptoms covering ~26 t0 ~50% of the plant. One or two spots of more than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface. Small dark and no dried spots with more than 1 cm width, are present
3
Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFlrin
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Senescence earliness computation in days from median emergence to 5% senescence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Not granular
0
brownish white
7
Boiled yam bitter after taste 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Small size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Senescence class estimation 1-9
MatC
IITA
A.Amele
Purple
100
intermediate
2
Difficult
0
First inflorescence initiation time computation
IITA
A.Amele
not attractive
1
Tuber flesh color gradient computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
creamy
6
Latency period duration computation in number of days from planting to 5% sprouts emergence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Big tuber width computation in cm
Btbrwidth
IITA
A.Amele
True seeds harvested/cross counting
Botseed
IITA
A.Amele
Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFFlr
IITA
A.Amele
Light grey
4
yam starch breakdown RVT
IITA
A.Amele
Late (75% of the plants in a plot with still green foliage but few plants (upto 25% plants in a plot) showing up to 25% of leaves senescence
3
Vine cuttings planted count
IITA
A.Amele
dislike
2
Off white
0
Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Neither like nor dislike
3
Fruit development status estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
regular
1
Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_middle
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flour starch content computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Boiled yam chewingness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Tuber dry rot incidence computation in %
S_Bri
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
female flower
2
Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3
TBR_Hairy
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Rotten tubers per plot counting number
NRDT
IITA
A.Amele
Brown
100
Light yellow
6
Young leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Pounded yam appearance estimation 1-3 scale
Appearance_PY
IITA
A.mele
Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Average tuber length measurement in cm
TBRL
IITA
A.Amele
Internode length computation in cm
INODL
IITA
A.Amele
yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5
AnthracSev
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Yes
1
No visible symptoms of anthracnose disease or infection spot on the leaf surface
1
highly oxidizing
3
Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DAFGR
IITA
A.Amele
Crop vigor computation in days from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover
Cirad
D.Cornet
Boiled yam sweetness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Stem height measurement in m
IITA
A.Amele
Male flower
1
Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg
Mtbrwt
IITA
A.Amele
Seeds sown/family counting
IITA
A.Amele
Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1
SECSP
IITA
A.Amele
like extremely
5
Heterophylly presence estimation nominal 0&1
Cirad
D.Cornet
Average tuber weight computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtendFlr
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Inflorescence type estimation
IITA
A.Amele
sticky
1
Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5
R_kns
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
pounded yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
Aroma_PY
IITA
A.mele
Petiole length measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3
IITA
A.Amele
Corm estimation binary 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
Big lumps
0
Leaf beetle damage incidence computation %
Btl_I
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
No flower or bud. No inflorescence and not flowering at all
0
Non flowering
0
oxidizes between 1 and 2 minure after cutting
2
Purplish white
5
Fruits developed per cross counting
FrtN
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Bitter
100
Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1
cormsep
IITA
A.Amele
Emerged plants counting/plot
IITA
A.Amele
Sprout color estimation 1-5
SPCOLO
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
dislike
2
Medium tubers per plant computation
IITA
A.Amele
Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg
AetbrwtPl
IITA
A.Amele
Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha
AetbrYld
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Medium stickiness
5
Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
IITA
A.Amele
Cream
5
Root position estimation 1-4
IITA
A.Amele
Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Senescence period duration computation in days between 5 and 95% senescence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
Medium size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Pure white
100
Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5
Tbets
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh color measurement
Tbrflcolr
IITA
A.Amele
like extremely
5
like
4
Fower initiation time computation in days
Dayflrin
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Very stretchable
10
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Leaf density estimation 1-7
IITA
A.Amele
Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Emerdt
IITA
A.Amele
Corm size estimation 1-3
Cormsize
IITA
A.Amele
Pounded yam stretchability scale 0-10
YamStr_Meas_0to10
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
Mature leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam bitterness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Rough
2
Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Medium tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
No brown
0
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg
Rot_Wt
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Foliage senescence time computation in days
DAYHS
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3
Oxid
IITA
A.Amele
Spines on stem estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber dormancy period estimation
Dorm
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm
SETW
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Fiber estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam purpleness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
IITA
A.Amele
Bulbils per plant computation
Aetbrpl
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf width measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot
IITA
A.Amele
Seeds set/fruit computation
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7
IITA
A.Amele
Internode length measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/%
Ratiosp
IITA
A.Amele, A. Lopez-Mentes
Sticky
100
Abesnt
0
Neutral
3
No purple
0
Boiled yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
Aroma_BY
IITA
A.mele
Easy to cut
0
Tuber flesh yellowness computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam crumbness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
soft or smooth
3
Spherical
1
Very sticky
10
Fruit setting estimation 0&1
frtform
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt
IITA
A.Amele
Stem color estimatiion 1-5
IITA
A.Amele
Absent
0
Sweet
100
virus severity estimation in 1-5
VRSS
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Boiled yam granuleness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Mealybug incidence computation %
M_Bi
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1
flcol_uni
IITA
A.Amele
First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
No
0
very early (The plants are completely senescent, yellowing is complete and uniform (both leaves and vines 100% senescence)
9
Boiled yam stickness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Time to first leaf emergence computation
IITA
A.Amele
End of flowering time computation in days
Dayendflr
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd
DATS
IITA
A.Amele
dislike
2
yam anthracnose disease incidence computation %
AnthracInc
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
sweet
4
Mouldable
10
Small tubers per plant compuatation
IITA
A.Amele
Boiled yam odour scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Pounded yam hardness scale 0-10
YamHar_Meas_0to10
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
Not sticky
0
Rough
1
Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4
fflrab
IITA
A.Amele
Pounded yam colour scale 1-9
YamCol_Meas_1to9
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
Absent
0
Low
3
Fruits harvested per cross counting
Matfrt
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
presence
1
Times to fruit maturity computation in days
DFM
IITA
A.Amele
Seedling establishment rate percentage
sder
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Taste estimation 1-5
Con_Taste_PY
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_tail
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
like extremely
5
Purplish green
4
Purple
4
Leaf length measurement in cm
IITA
A.Amele
acronym
Boiled yam whiteness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃˆnin
Laurent Adinsi
Hairy (few scattered or many roots in the surface of the tuber)
2
like
4
Pollination type estimation 1-4
Pollmech
IITA
A.Amele
Yellow
3
Corm type estimation 1-3
Cormtype
IITA
A.Amele
absence
0
Big tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
76-100% tuber skin showing symptoms
4
Non sticky
0
Fruit index computation 0 to 1
IITA
A.Amele
51-75% tuber skin showing symptoms
3
Very Late (all the plants in a plot still show green foliage (green leaf and vine)
1
Small tubers per plot counting number
IITA
A.Amele
like extremely
5
moderately attractive
2
Leaf shape estimation 1-7
IITA
A.Amele
Plant vigor estimation 1-3
PLNV
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Few
1
26-50% tuber skin showing symptoms
2
Light brown
8
Grey
3
Neither like nor dislike
3
Not mooldable
0
Not sticky
3
Pollinated spikes counting
NPOLS
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5
Btl_S
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Monoecious male (m>f)
3
Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5
M_Bs
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Neither like nor dislike
3
Low (flowering is scare with the presence of few flowers mostly less than 10 inflorescences per plant)
3
Intermediate
5
Difficult to cut
100
Pale green
2
Very hard
10
Present
1
slightly sticky
2
Brown
9
dislikeextremely
1
orange
9
Moderate (producing some flowers mostly 10-29 inflorescences per plant)
5
Very soft
0
Not streachable
0
no oxidization
0
Medium stretchability
5
Pounded yam smoothness scale 0-10
YamSmot_Meas_0to10
Bowen University, Nigeria
Bolanle Otegbayo
High
7
Yam ontology
entity
Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
High
100
Small tuber width computation in cm
Stbrwidth
IITA
A.Amele
Bulbils per plot count
Aetbrp
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Irregular
4
Cylindrical
3
Profuse (plant producing many more flowers mostly 30 to 50 inflorescences per plant)
7
Tubers planted counting/plot
Sett-N
IITA
A.Amele
1-25% tuber skin showing symptoms
1
Maturity time estimation GGD
IITA
A.Amele
Cohesiveness estimation 1-3
IITA
A.Amele
very sweet
5
Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Crop cover compactness computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
Yellow
7
dislikeextremely
1
Seed index computation 0 to 1
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber flour sugar content computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
very bitter
1
Many
2
dislikeextremely
1
Monoecious female(f>m)
4
Tuber size estimation 1-3
TUBSIZE
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Boiled yam appearance estimation 1-5 scale
Appearance_BY
IITA
A.mele
Few anthracnose spots or sysmptoms on 1 t0 ~25% of the plant. One or two spots of less than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface
2
Emergence vigor computation in number of days between 5% and 95% sprouts emergence
Cirad
D.Cornet
Medium tuber width computation in cm
Mtbrwidth
IITA
A.Amele
Crumby
100
Thorny (small prominences ending in a small thorn)
3
oxidizes less than a minure
1
Fully smooth
4
Creamy white
2
Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4
Aetbrshap
IITA
A.Amele
early (The plants have senescent foliage (75% of the plants in a plot with 50% leaves showing sign of yellowing but the vines still green)
7
attribute
Easy
100
like
4
Yellowish
1
Many thorns or spines on tuber surface
7
slighty irregular
3
Medium mouldability
5
Extremely pofuse (plant producing with abundant flowring mostly more than 50 inflorescences per plant)
9
Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
Slightly bitter
2
Fibers
100
No symptoms
0
Present
100
White
1
deep purple
8
oxidizes more than 3 minutes
3
Not crumby
0
Purple
5
No fibers
0
few thorns or spines on tuber surface
3
slightly oxidizing
1
strong or hard or lumpy
1
aborted flower. Presence of small or rudimentary inflorescences/flowers that can show an abortion or abscission point at joint of the pedicel
1
very attractive
3
White
1
Absent
0
Off-white
2
Root knot nematode severity - Estimation
Root knot nematode severity estimation in a range from no symptoms to highly severe galling scored in secondary roots of the plant and tubers adventitious roots.
Tuber surface texture
Tuber surface smoothness
Tbrtxtur
Tuber
texture
%
0-1 scale
number of fruits
Colour scale 1-9
Shape of tuber - computation
Measure the length and width of tuber using measuring tape and record the length /with ratio
Smoothness scale 0-10
Inflorescence type-Estimation
Observe the type of inflorescence and score it
0-7 scale
Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement
Record weight of rotten and/or diseased tubers harvested in a net plot
1-5 scale
Tuber surface appearance - Estimation
Observe the appearance of roots, thones and srout buds on surface of harvested tubers and make visual score using scale
Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation
Mealybug tuber severity estimation on infested tubers at time harvesting
Total fresh tuber weight per plot
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers harvested in a net plot
TTWP
Tuber
weight
Tuber beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers with tubers beetle damage from the total number of harvested tubers in the effective plot at harvesting time.
Appearance method
Observe the surface of product and evaluate the frequency/number of the black points
Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement
Record the weight of medium size ( ? 500 gm and <1 kg) tubers in a net plot
number of florets
Hairiness of sprout - Estimation
Record existance of hairs on a sprout (vine)
Root knot nematode incidence
Root knot incidence caused by Meloidogyne spp.
RKNInc
Tuber
Root knot nematode damage incidence
Leaf color - Estimation
Assess the color of leaf on a young plant
Branch number
Number of branches above ground
branch
Branch
Number
Color of boiled yam-Estimation
Observe the optical color or pigementation of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Spines on sprout presence
Presence of spines on sprout (vines)
SPNSP
Spine on sprout
Presense
Fruits harvested number
Number of harvested fruits per cross after physiological maturity
FrtHvstN
Fruit per cross
Number
Cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation
Record appearance of cracks on tuber surface as absent, few and many
Plant or flower sex-Estimation
Scoring the most frequent flower sex type when more than 50% of the plants are flowered
Floret pollinated number - Counting
Count the number of pollinated florets per female parent per cross
Boiled yam stickness
Property related to the adhesion of the product between the fingers
BoilYamHdStick
Boiled root
Stickness in hand
Times to first sprout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date first sprout or plant in a plot or unit area emerged
Leaf position
Arrangement of leaves on stem or vine
lfpst
Leaf
arrangement
Boiled yam easiness to chew
Property related to the number of chews necessary to swallow the product
BoilYamMthChew
Boiled root
Ease of chewing
Corm on tuber
Presence or absence of corm on tuber
corm
Corm
Presence
Tuber number/plot
Small size tubers per plant
Number of small size tubers ( <0.5kg) per plant
NSTPL
Small tuber
Number
Sprout color
Color of the sprout (vine and leaves).
SprtCol
Sprout
color
Sprout hairiness
Hairs on sprout (vines)
HAIRSP
Sprout
hairiness
Senescence
Foliage senescence or maturity class
SE
Plant
Maturity class
Viruses infection incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion of virus symptomatic individuals or their parts or commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Take virus incidence recording thrice: First inspection at 8 to 10 weeks after planting and second inspection after 4 to 6 weeks after first inspection for virus symptoms and the third and final inspection 4 to 6 weeks after the second inspection .
Time to 50% foliage senescence
Time when 50% of the plants in a plot are showing signs of foliage senescence
TIMsen
Plant
50% Senescence time
Tuber beetle severity
Severity of tuber beetle damage.
Tubtlsev
Tuber
Tuber beetle severity
Leaf density
Variation in leaf mass of the plant
Lfden
Leaf
density
Pollinated spike number - Estimation
Count the number of pollinated spikes per female parent per cross
Width of small size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Boiled yam hardness
Force required to cut/break with fork
BoilYamHdHard
Boiled root
Hardness of cutting or breaking
Number of well established plants -Counting
Take count of well established plants in a plot usually at two months after planting
Internode length
Internode length
Intndlngth
Stem internode
length
Tuber dry matter content - Computation
Select at least five random whole tubers from a net plot and cut small slices (1-2 mm) from proximal, middle and distal portion and mixed thoroughly. Record fresh weight and determin dry weight of samples by drying at 70âˆžC for 72 h in a forced air oven. A proportion between the dry weight and the fresh weight is calculated.
Starch grain size
Mean starch grain size of yam tuber flour
yam flour
Size
Tuber flesh texture-Estimation
Record the texture of tuber flesh using scale
Corm on tubers-Estimation
Score corm status of tubers using a binary scale
Female flowering intensity
Intensity or abudance of female flowers on spikes/infloresences
fflrint
Flower
abondance
Tuber flesh color
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
Tbrfclr
Tuber flesh
color
Vine cuttings planted -counting
Count the numeber vine cuttings planted
Tuber flesh yellow index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the yellow index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Length of big size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Leaf shape
Leaf shape of plants
Lfshp
Leaf
shape
days
Vein color - Estimation
Assess the color of leaf vein on the upper surface
Taste of boiled yam-Estimation
Feel the taste of boiled yam in mouth and make sensory score using scale how pleasing to the taste
Boiled yam crumbness
Property of the product to crumble or break between the fingers
BoilYamHdCrum
Boiled root
Crumbness in hand
Plant type
A tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread
Plntype
Plant
growth habit
Vines established-computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of vines cuttings survive and producing shoots from the total of planted vine cuttings
Growing degree days to maturity-Estimation
Compute number of growing degree days required from planting (or 50% emergence) to 50% foliage senescence or maturity.
Yam anthracnose disease incidence
Anthracnose incidence caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. % of anthracnose ?blight? or leaf spotaffected plants in a plot
YADI
Plant
Anthracnose incidence
Color difference bewteen mean tuber head and tail flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the ∆E2000 bewteen mean tuber head and tail flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values
Root knot nematode severity
Root knot severity caused by Meloidogyne spp.
RKNSev
Tuber
Root knot nematode severity
Texture in the hand method
After breaking or cutting, breaking or crumbling, evaluate the intensity of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
First inflorescence time - Estimation
Record date when plant/s having the first inflorescence in a plot
kg/plot
Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation
Computed as total tuber weight per plot divided by size of net or effective harvest plot and result multiplied by 10
Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation
Observe the occurance or presence of dry rot caused by nematods (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) on harvested tubers and record the presence and absence
Corm type
Corm type
cortyp
Corm
Type
Pounded yam smoothness
Absence of lumps
YamHdSmot
Pounded yam
Smoothness
1-3 scale
Petiole length
Length of petiole
petlngth
Petiole
Lengh
Scale insect infestation
Scale insect infestation on tubers at harvest
Scalisec
Tuber
scale insect infestation
Pounded yam color
Optical color or pigmentation of pounded yam
colpoundedyam
Pounded yam
color
Taste method
After swallowing, observe the feeling or sensation of the bitter taste on the tongue and assess its intensity
Boiled yam whiteness
Both inner and outer colour can range from light yellowish (off-white) to white (pure white)
BoilYamWhit
Boiled root surface
Whiteness
Stem diameter-computation
Measure the stem diameter at 15 cm above the base of five plants before senescence in a plot and record the average
Foliage senescence time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from sprout emergence or planting to when all plants had fully senesced
Medium size tuber length
Average length of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Mtbrleng
Medium tuber
Length
Inflorescence initiation time
Time of first inflorescence initiation
TIMinflor
Plant
Inflorescence initiation time
kg/plant
Time to end of flowering
End of flowering time or when a plant does not produce new flower in a plot
TIMEF
Plant
end of flowering time
Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation
Score the sticknes or adhesiveness of pounded yam to consumern fingur using sensory test panelist
Pollination type
Mode of plant to plant pollen transfer
Polltyp
Flower
pollination type
Date (yyyymmdd)
0-1 scale
Time of first seed germination-Estimation
Record date the first seed germination observed per cross or family
Medium size tubers per plant-computation
Compute the number of medium size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of medium size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
1-3 general scale
Tuber length
Average length of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Tbrleng
Tuber
Length
Texture in the hand stretchabilitymethod
Flesh oxidation quantitative computation
The pounded yam is touched and pulled apart with the fingers
Cirad
G.Arnau
Stem height
Height or the length of stem
Stmht
Stem
height
Leaf beetle damage incidence
Incidence of leaf beetle damage.
Lfbtinc
Leaf
Leaf beetle incidence
Medium size tuber width
Average width of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Mtbrwd
Medium tuber
Length
Tuber surface texture - Estimation
Record the smoothness or roughness of tuber skin in visual scale
Odour method
Take a whiff and evaluate the intensity of yam odour
Place of roots on tubers
Position of appearance of roots at surface of tubers
Prtbs
Tuber
Roots position
tuber number/plant
Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting
Count the number of tubers (seed yams or setts) planted per plot (unit area)
Twining direction-Estimation
Record the twining or climbing direction of the vine
Status of fruit development
Fruit development status on monoecious and female flower of dioeciouse yam plant
FrtDev
Fruit
status
Number of emerged plants
Number of an emerged plants (sprouts) in a plot
NEP
Plant or sprout
Number
Bulbil initiation time - Computation
Compute number of days required from sprout emergence to 50% of plants in a plot start forming bulbils or aerial tubers
Texture in the hand stickness method
Tuber flesh oxidation
Sample is touched with fingers or moulded in the hands
Oxidation ratio of flesh
Tuber flesh
Flesh oxidation
Number of internodes to first branching
Number of internodes to first branchs on a plant
NINFB
Stem internode
number
Seeds germination end time
Time last seed germination occurred
germend
Seed
germination ending time
Growth cycle length
Time between 5% emergence and 95% senescence
Canopy
Growth cycle length
Duration between 5 and 95% senescence of subplot - Computation
Averaged senescence period duration expressed in days between 5 and 95% senescence (i.e. 95% and 5% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 95% and 5% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Tuber wideth-computation
Compute the average tuber width of all size measurement taken in a net plot
Total tubers per plant
Number of tubers harvested per plant
TNTPL
Tuber
Number
Anthracnose severity - Estimation
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by yam anthracnose disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected.It is visual score in scale under screenhouse, artificial inoculation or under field natural infestation. For artificial inoculation use a suspension of three most virulent strains of Colletothrichum gloeosporioides and inoculate the plants raised from vine cutting in vertical sack or other means by spraying. For natural infestation, scores can be taken 10 to 12 weeks after planting and second scoring about 4-6 weeks before harvesting . Artificial inoculation should be scored at 3 days after inoculation(DAI) , and repeated at 7DAI, 11DAI and 15DAI
Pounded yam stickiness
This is when the pounded yam sticks or adhere to the fingers when it is touched with fingers or during moulding into bolus for swallowing.
YamHdStic
Pounded yam
Stickiness
Vein color
Color or pigmentation of leaf vein
lveincol
Leaf
vein color
Viruses infection severity - Estimation
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by virus disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected using visual five ordinal scale . Predominant severity per plot must be registered at least thrice : 8 to 10 weeks after planting, 4 to 6 weeks after first scoring and the last scoring at 4 to 6 weeks after the second scoring
Fibrousness of pounded yam
Presenceof ?ber strands
fbrpdym
Pounded yam
Presence of fiber strands
Canopy architecture
Organisation or structural arrangements of branchs and leaves distribution giving a specific shape to the above ground part of the plant
Canarc
Canopy
architecture
Tuber flesh color reading -measurement
Measure the flesh surface color of tuber (head, middle and tail portion) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using colorimeter (a color spectrophotometer) or standard color chart.
m
Big size yam yield adjusted-computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per per plant mutiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Seedling establishment rate-computation
Compute the proportion of seedlings per family (cross) establish well and ready for transplanting, usually recorded at five weeks after sowing.
cm
Texture in the hand smoothness method
Sample is pressed firmly between the fingers
50% sprout emergence time
Time to 50% sprouts (plants) emerge in a plot
TIMSE
Plant or sprout
50% emergence time
Number of nodes carrying cataphylles
Mean number of nodes carrying cataphylles on main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Plant
Number
Anthracnose incidence - Estimation
Compute the proportion of anthracnose damaged individuals or their parts , commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Count anthracnose disease ?blight? or leaf spot affected plants in plot twice (First inspection at 10 to 12 weeks post planting and second inspection after 2 to 4 weeks before harvesting ) and compute the proportion of damanged
50% flowering time - Estimation
Record time (date) 50% plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation
Score the distance to which the deformed material can be or degree of stretchabiliy pounded yam in intesity scale
Medium size tuber weight per plant
Weight of medium size tuber yam per plant
WMTPL
Medium tuber
weight
Tuber dormancy period
Tuber dormancy period
TubDorm
Tuber
Dormancy period
Stretchability scale 0-10
Flesh oxidation - computation
Score the length oxidation (from head) and the length tuber and record the oxidation length / length tuber ratio
Internode length - computation
Measure the length of internode at 1m height on five (5) plants and record the average
Twining habit-Estimation
Record the tendency of vine to twine or climb
Number
Boiled yam granuleness
Refers to the presence of small grains during chewing
BoilYamMthGran
Boiled root
Granuliness in mouth
Tuber shape
Tuber predominant shape
TbrSh
Tuber
Shape
Texture in the mouth method
Put the product between the molars and mash it to assess the number of chews before swallowing
Tuber flesh browning
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Tuber flesh
Oxidation intensity
Twining habit
Tendency of climbing or trailling
TWNH
Plant
twining habit
Fruit harvesting time- Estimation
Record the date of fruits harvest in a crossing block or from plant
Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing less than 500 gm harvested per effective plot
Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation
Record date when 50% of plants in a plot begin producing bulbils or aerial tubers
Tuber flesh oxidation color
Surface color resulting of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation
Foxdc
Tuber
Oxidation color
Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in cross-section ( from cortex to center)
Utfc
Tuber cross section
color
Germination rate - Computation
Compute the proportion of sown true or botanical seed which germinate and produce seedling ready for transplant , usually observed at three weeks after sowing.
Corm separability from tuber
Corm separation from tuber
corsep
Corm
separation
Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation
Visual assessment of spines on a stem (vine) above the base of mature plants in a plot
1-5 scale
Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date 50% of sprouts or plants in a plot emerged
Seed germination rate
A proportion of sown true (botanical) seed which germinate and produce seedling
germRate
Seed
germination rate
Rotten tuber weight
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers
RDTW
Rotten Tuber
Weight
Vine cutting establishment rate
Proportion of vine cuttings established well that producing shoots
Vestrat
Plant
establishment rate
Plant type-Estimation
Visual assessment of the tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain mature height and spread
Bulbil yield
Yield of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Bulbyld
Aerial tuber
Yield
Presence of bulbil
Presence of bulbils or aerial tubers in the nodes of the vines
Bulbil
Aerial tuber
Bulbil presence
Texture of boiled yam-Estimation
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when boiled yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Boiled yam color
Optical color or pigmentation of boiled yam
colbldyam
Boiled yam
color
Big size tubers harvested number - counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ?1 kg harvested per effective plot
Presence of cataphylle
Observe the presence or absence of cataphylle
Proportion of established plants
Proportion of plants in a plot well established (plantsgrowing with good vigour and without severe constraints)
STRATE
Plant
Proportion
Plant Vigor
The vigour of the vine and leaves of the new plant.
PVigor
Plant
vigor
Big size tubers per plant-computation
Compute the number of big size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of big size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation
Compute the weight to harvested bulbils per plant
Sprout length-computation
Compute the average sprout length of five representative plants measurement taken in a plot
Fruit index
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing mature fruits
0-2 scale
Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation
Compute the sum all category or size of tubers (Big, medium, small size, and rotten and diseased) fresh weight per plot
Presence of fiber strand-Estimation
Score the presence or absence of ?ber strands on pounded yam
Fruit set number - Computation
Compute the fruit set number as proportion of pollinated flowers developing or setting a fruit and expressed in %
Big size tuber weight per plant
Weight of big size tubers per plant
WBTPL
Big tuber
weight
Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation
Observe and record fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the tail portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Senescence duration
Time between 5 and 95% senescence
Canopy
Senescence duration
Inflorescence type
The arrangement of flowers on stem or twig of a plant
Inft
Inflorescence
type
Corm size-Estimation
Record corm size in relation to tuber size using three scale
50% flowering time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from 50% of sprouts in plot emerged to 50% of plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
Leaf density - Estimation
Observe the leaf abundance or mass on a mature plant and rate the density
Seeds germinated
Quanity of sown true (botanical) seeds germinated per cross or family
sdgerm
Seed germinated
Number
Fruit maturity time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from fruit set to fruit phyisological maturity
Internode length -computation
Measure the internode length of five plants before senescence at 1 meter height and record the average
Cohesiveness of pounded yam
Degree to which particles of a sample stick together or how moldable it is
cohpdym
Pounded yam
Cohesiveness
Boiled yam Yam flavor
Odour of boiled yam
BoilYamOdor
Boiled root
Yam odour
Tuber flesh uniformity
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in longitudinal section
Tuber flesh
color
Tuber thorniness - Estimation
Record the presence or absence of thorns or spines on the tuber skin in visual scale
uniteless
Weight of planted tubers
Weight of seed tubers (whole seed yams or setts ) planted in a plot or per unit area. Planting material from a tuber is called sett. Seed tuber could be either small, healthy whole tuber or large tubers cut into pieces (sett)
WTP
Seed tuber
Weight
Pollinated spikes number
Quantity of Female spikes where flowers has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
NPollSpk
Inflorescence
number
Texture in the hand mouldability method
Shape regularity estimation 0-2
Sample is put in the hands and moulded
Cirad
G.Arnau
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Severity of mealybug tuber infestation.
MbugSev
Tuber
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Length of medium size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg ) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation
Compute the number of days required for 50% of the plants in a plot showing foliage senescence
Stems per plant
Number of stems (vines) with leaves and branches per plant
Nstem
Stem
number
Average weigth of big size tuber
Average weight of big size tubers in kg
AWBT
Big tuber
Weight
Dry rot tuber number-counting
Take count of dry rot tubers per plot at harvest
Period from planting to median emergence
Computation of inflection point value using log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Tuber thorniness intensity
Intensity of thorns on the tuber surface
ThornInt
Tuber
Thorn or spine intesity
Boiled yam texture
The physical attributes of boiled yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
txtboiledyam
Boiled yam
texture
Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation
Record position of appearance of roots at surface to tubers
Established plants
Number of well established plants ( plants growing with good vigour and without severe constraints) in a plot
NESP
Plant
Number
Yellowness of the Flesh colour
The surface yellowness of the yam tuber flesh
Tuber flesh
color
Scale insect infestation - Estimation
Observe and score scale insect infestation on tuber at harvest
Senescence earliness
Time from median emergence to 5% senescence
Canopy
Growth duration
Medium size tubers harvested number- counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ? 500 gm and <1 kg harvested per effective plot
Tuber thorniness
Exsistence of thorns on the tuber surface
Thorn
Tuber
Thorniness
Time to fruit harvesting
Time of fruit harvesting
DateFH
Fruit
Harvesting ime
Crazy roots presence
Appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface
CRZROOT
Crazy roots
presence
Browness of the Tuber flesh colour
The surface browness of the yam tuber flesh
Tuber flesh
color
number of leaf
Average tuber weight -computation
Calculated as total tuber weight per plot divided by total number of tubers per plot
Stem hairiness
Hairiness of stem
stmhair
Stem
hairiness
Pounded yam appearance
The optical appearance of pouned yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of pounded yam structure
apppoundedyam
Pounded yam
appearance
1-2 scale
Medium size tubers per plot
Number of medium size tubers that weighing ? 0.5kg and <1 kg in a net plot or unit area
NMTP
Medium tuber
Number
Yam tuber dry rot severity
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Tuber
Dry rot severity
Proportion of emerged plants
Proportion of plants /sprouts emerged in a plot
PPE
Plant or sprout
Proportion
Small size tuber width
Average width of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Stbrwd
Small tuber
Length
Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting
Count the number of rotten and/or diseased tubers in effective plot
Leaf length
Length of leaf
lflngth
Leaf
length
Time first sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date of first spout emergence in a plot
Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement
Record the fresh weight of harvested bulbil or aerial tuber per net plot
Tuber oxidation-Estimation
Record time in minutes lasted for cut tuber flesh to become or not oxidized and score in scale
0-2 scale
Seeds set per fruit
Number of seeds developed per fruit after hand flowers pollination
SdSet
Set seed per Fruit
number
Tuber flour protein content
Tuber flour protein content
yam flour
content
Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting
Record the total number of true seed or botanical seed harvested or obtained per cross or family
Ratio between subplot ground cover area and its respective convex hull area - Computation
Averaged crop cover compactness over two subplots images around time of 50% of maximum ground cover.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 50% of maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Images choosen as near as possible of date of time at 50% of maximum growth .
Compactness computed as the ration between ground cover area (pixels) and its respective convex hull area (pixels).
Big size tubers per plot
Number of big size tubers that weighing ?1 kg in a net plot or unit area
NBTP
Big tuber
Number
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Bulbp
Aerial tuber
Number
Crossing date
Date crossing or pollination attempted
datcross
Plant
pollination time
Yam tuber dry rot presence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Tuber
Dry rot presence
Time to 50% flowering
Time when 50% of the plants flower in a plot
TIMFL
Plant
50% flowering time
number of seed
Leaf hairiness - Estimation
Assess hairiness of leaf surface (lower part)
Appearance method
Tuber shape quantitative computation
Visually inspect sample surface
Cirad
G.Arnau
Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation
Record the degree of thorns or spines on tuber surface in visual scale
Leaf length - computation
Measure the length from lobes to the tip using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant and at leat five plants on a plot), and record the average length
Secondary sprouting
Emergence of secondary sprouts on a plant
SecSP
Sprout
Secondary sprouting
Medium size tubers per plant
Number of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) per plant
NMTPL
Medium tuber
Number
Emerged sprouts -Counting
Count the emerged plants (sprouts) per plot every week starting from first plant/sprout emergence date till the last plant or spourt emerge in a plot
Boiled yam bitter after taste
During chewing, bitter taste after swallowing, eg there is a light bitter aftertaste
BoilYamBitteraft
Boiled root
Bitterness after taste
Leaf apex shape
Leaf apex shape
Lfapx
Leaf apex
shape
1-3 scale
Petiole length - Computation
Measure the length of petiole using measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average length
Fruits/cross
Number of plant
Pounded yam texture
The physical attributes of pounded yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
txtpoundedyam
Pounded yam
texture
1-5 scale
Twining direction
Twining direction
twndir
Vine
twining direction
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation
Computed the yield of bulbil per hectare using the formula.
Time to maturity
Length of time toward crop maturity
Mat
Plant
Maturity time
Time to flower initiation
Time of the first flower initiation on a plant/s in a plot or any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
TIMFlrin
Plant
Flower initiation time
Tuber cracks
Cracks on tuber surface
CTBRS
Tuber
Cracks
Virus severity
Grade of reaction of the plant to the viruses infection, varying from mottle, mosaics until total leaves deformation
VirusSev
Plant
Virus severity
Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the head portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Mean color difference between average tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values and tuber flesh color of individual pixel values
Compute the ∆E2000 between average tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values and tuber flesh color of individual pixel values
0-9 scale
Earliness of emergence
Elapsed time between planting date and date of 50% emergence sprouts in a plot
Sprout
Period duration from planting to 50% sprout emergence
Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per plot divided by size of effective harvest plot mutiplied by 10
Canopy architecture - Estimation
Determination of predominant canopy architecture
Tuber beetle incidence
Incidence of tuber beetle damage.
Tubtlinc
Tuber
Tuber beetle incidence
Leaf beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion of plants with leaf beetle damage from the total number of plants in the effective plots on leaf beetle damange record taken twice(at two and five months after planting date)
Taste of pounded yam
Taste of pounded yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
TastePndedYam
Pounded yam
taste
Tuber appearance
Tuber surface look in relation to presence or absence of roots, thorns and sprouted buds on the tuber surface
Tbrappr
Tuber
Appearance
Plant harvested number - Counting
Counting the number of plants where tubers were harvested in a plot
Leaf beetle severity - Estimation
Assess the leaf beetle infestation at two and five months after planting and record its severity
1-9 scale
Springiness of pounded yam
Distance to which the deformed material can be sretchable
sprgpdym
Pounded yam
Springiness
Big size tuber width
Average width of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Btbrwd
Big tuber
Length
Number of stems per plant-computation
Compute average of the number of stems (vines) per established plants in a plot
Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the smoothnessof the pounded yam , i.e., absence of lumps by finger feeling and using intensity scale
Big size tuber length
Average length of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Btbrleng
Big tuber
Length
Tuber flour starch content
Tuber flour starch content
yam flour
content
Small size tuber length
Average length of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Stbrleng
Small tuber
Length
Bulbil weight
Weight of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Bulbwtp
Aerial tuber
Weight
Senescence- Estimation
Observe the status of foliage senescence (leaf or vine yellowing) of plants in plot at 6 month onward and rate the maturity status
Crumbness scale 0-100
Stem color
The surface color of stem
Stmcol
Stem
color
Number of leaves
The number of leaves on a plant
Nlfyp
Leaf
Number
Purpleness scale 0-100
0-1 binary scale
Plant sex
Predominat plant or flower sex
Sex
Flower
sex
Yam anthracnose disease severity
Anthracnose severity caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. The reaction of plants in a plot to anthracnose infestation (blight or leaf spot) under screenhouse or in the field under natural infestation or artificial inoculation
YADS
Plant
Anthracnose severity
Boiled yam sweetness
Basic light sugary taste like a little glucose or sucrose in water solution
BoilYamSweet
Boiled root
Sweetness
Small size tubers per plot
Number of small size tubers that weighing <0.5kg in a net plot or unit area
NSTP
Small tuber
Number
Total tuber yield
Total tuber yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
TTYNA
Tuber
yield
Average tuber weight
Average tuber weight in kg
ATW
Tuber
Weight
NIRS model prediction - computation
Prediction of sugar content using NIRS spectra (FOSS 6500) of tuber flour sample
rvt
Tuber size
Tuber size
TbrSz
Tuber
Size
Boiled yam taste
Taste of boiled yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
Tastebldyam
Boiled yam
taste
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Tuber
Dry rot incidence
Small size tuber weight per plant
Weight of small size yam per plant
WSTPL
Small tuber
Weight
End of flowering time - Computation
Computing the number of days required from 50% of sprout emergence to when plant does not produce more new flowers.
Big size tubers weight per plot
Weight of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
BTW
Big tuber
Weight
Pollinated florets number
Quantity of Female Flowers which has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
NpollF
Inflorescence
number
Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation
Measure the weight of N planted tubers (seed yams or setts) and record the average
Corm size
Size of corm in relation to tuber
corsz
Corm
Size
Big size tuber yield adjusted
Big size tubers yield adjusted tons per hectare
BTYA
Big tuber
yield
Latency before emergence
Elapsed time between planting date and date of 5th percentile emergence sprouts in a plot
Sprout
Period duration from planting to first sprouts emergence
Tuber size - Estimation
Determination of predominant size of the tuber in the entire family
Taste of pounded yam - Estimation
Score taste of pounded yam using sensory test panalist
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Intoxd
Tuber
Oxidation intensity
number of tubers
Seeds sown
Quantity of botanical or true seeds sown per family or cross
Sdsown
Seed sown
Number
First sprout emergence time
Time to the first sprout (plant) emerge in a plot
TIMFSE
Plant or sprout
First emergence time
Total tuber yield adjusted
Total tuber yield adjusted tons per hectare
TTYA
Tuber
yield
Heterophylly presence
Presence of cataphylles during early stage
Plant
Presence
Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation
Record appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface at harvest
Seedling transplant survival rate
Establishment rate of seedlings four weeks after transplanting operation
Tsurvrat
Seedling
Survival rate
First inflorescence time - Compuation
Compute the number of days required to first inflorescence emergence in a plot
Fruits developed number - Counting
Record the number of developed fruits or fruit set in pollinated flowers/inflorescence
Small size tubers weight per plot
Weight of small size tubers ( <0.5kg ) in a net plot or unit area
STW
Small tuber
Weight
Leaf shape-Estimation
Record leaf shape of mature plants in a plot
Stand harvested number
Number of plants harvested
NPH
Haversted plant
number
Leaf position - Estimation
Observe the arrangement of leaves on stem or vine and rate it
1-3 scale
plants per plot
Leaf hairiness
Hairiness of leaf surface
llfhair
Leaf
hairiness
Time to bulbil initiation
Bulbil initiation time
TIMbulb
Aerial tuber
duration
Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation
Record the flesh enzymatic oxidation color using color scale
Corm type-Estimation
Record the corm type as regular, transversally elongated or brached using scale
Boiled yam fibrousness
Refers to the presence of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
BoilYamHdFibr
Boiled root
Fibrousness in hand
Microscopy image analysis
Microscopy (10x) image analysis of iodin colored yam tuber flour (0.5mm)
1-4 score
Appearance of pounded yam-Estimation
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of pouned yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Total tuber harvested number-computation
Compute the sum of all category/size tubers (big, medium, small and rotten/diseased) in a net plot
Total tubers per plot
Number of total (all size) tubers in a net plot or unit area
TNTP
Tuber
Number
Hair on stem - Estimation
Observe the presence or absence of hairs on stem surface
1-5 scale
Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of plants/sprouts emerged as the number of emerged plants/sprouts divided by the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted in a plot multiplied by 100
Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion dry rot tubers from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot
Number of bulbil - Computation
Count number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils on plants in a net plot and compute the average number bulbils per plant
Flower initaition time - Computation
Computing the number of days required from first sprout emergence to first flower initiation
Small size tubers per plant-Computation
Compute the number of small size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of small size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Sprout length
Length of sprouted shoots (vines)
Spleng
Sprout
length
Bulbil shape-Estimation
Record shape of bulbils or aerial tubers in scale
Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the degree to which particles of a pounded yam stick together or how moldable it is using intensity scale
1-7 general scale
Leaf Width
Width of leaf
lfwdt
Leaf
width
Subplot maximum ground cover from weekly image analysis - Computation
Averaged maximum ground cover over two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Maximum ground cover computed from ground cover dynamic modeled using time to event Beta Growth model.
Presence of spot on spine base
Presence of colored spots at the spine base of sprouted shoots (vine) with spines
SPBCOL
Spine
colored spot
Yam starch breakdown
The breakdown of yam starch extracted from fresh tubers were determined using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA-TecMaster, Perten Instruments, Australia)
starchbrk
Tuber
starch
Number of branchs - computation
Count the number of branches above ground on at least five mature plants in a plot and record the average
Boiled yam surface black points presence
Refers to the presence of small black points on the surface of product
BoilYamBlackspo
Boiled root surface
Black points presence
Tuber dry matter content
Proportion of dry matter in the tuber.
TubDMC
Tuber
Dry matter content
Length of small size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Tuber flesh brown index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the brown index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Emergence vigor
Elapsed time between time of 5th and 95th percentiles emergence sprouts in a plot
Sprout
Period duration from first to last sprouts emergence
Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of medium size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Bulbil shape
Predominant shape of the bulbils
Bulbsp
Aerial tuber
Shape
Total tuber yield adjusted-computation
Computed as total tubers weight per plant multiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Texture in the hand hardness method
Tuber shape regularity
Sample is pressed with the index finger
Regularity of tuber shape
Tuber
Shape regularity
Pounded yam mouldability/cohesiveness
Ability of the pounded yam to stick together easily without disintegrating or cohesive and being easy to mould.
YamHdMoul
Pounded yam
Mouldability/cohesiveness
Dormancy period -Estimation
Assess the proportion of sprouted tubers at different time interval (once a week) from harvesting up to three months after harvesting and rate the dormancy period in scale
GDD°C
Duration between 5% emergence and 95% senescence of subplot - Computation
Averaged growth cycle duration expressed in days between 5% emergence and 95% senescence (i.e. 5% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Median senescence computed from inflection point value using log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting.
Time at 5% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Duration from emergence to first true leaf
Mean duration between fisrt emergence and first true leaf apprearance on main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Plant
Heterophylly duration
Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date 50% of sprouts in a plot emerged
Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of big size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Flowering intensity
Abundance or degree of flowering
Flrint
Plant
flowering intensity
1-5 general scale
Maximum ground cover
Maximum ground cover
Canopy
Maximum ground cover
Pollination type-Estimation
Record the method used to transfer the pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same or different plant of the same species
Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation
Observe the femal flowering intensity or abudance per inflorences and rate
Black spots presence scale 0-100
Seedling Establishment rate
Establishment rate of seedlings
sderat
Seedling
Establishment rate
number of bulbils
1-5 scale
Seed index
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing seeds
Stickness scale 0-100
Foliage senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
TIMfsen
Plant
Senescence time
Nodes carrying cataphylle per plant
Spines on stem density
Intensity of spines on stem (vine) above base of mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
SPNAB
Spine
density
Stem diameter
Stem diameter of a mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
STMDM
Stem
diameter
Vine cuttings planted
Vine cuttings planted
NVP
Plant
number
1-4 scale
Boiled yam brownness
Brown colour of product after cooking
BoilYamBrow
Boiled root surface
Brownness
Tuber flesh texture
Texture of tuber flesh
Txf
Tuber flesh
texture
Brownness scale 0-100
Corm separation from tuber-Estimation
Record the corm ability to be separated from tuber in a binary scale
Seed index
Seed index is an estimation of pollinated flowers producing seeds
Seed
seed set ratio
Crop folliage compactness
Crop cover compactness
Canopy
Architecture
Plant Vigor - Estimation
Visual assessment of the plant vigour in a plot at two month after planting
Whiteness scale 0-100
Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation
Record the intensity of tuber hairs or secondary roots on the surface of harvested tubers
50% fruit set time-Estimation
Record the date fruit set in 50% of plants in a plot
Leaf beetle damage severity
Severity of leaf beetle damage.
Lfbtsev
Leaf
Leaf beetle severity
Boiled yam aroma
The sense of smell or odor of boiled yam that reaches the nose before eating or the boiled yam reaches the mouth
arombldyam
Boiled yam
aroma
Stem height - computation
Measure the length or height of stem or vine of at least five mature plants in a plot using measuring tape at five to six months after sprout emergence and record the average
Duration from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover of subplot - Computation
Averaged crop vigor expressed in days from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover in subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 80% of maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Incidence of mealybug tuber infestation.
MbugInc
Tuber
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Aroma of pounded yam-Estimation
Assess the small or odour the pounded yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the pounded yam to eat
Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation
Record the uniformity of tuber flesh cross-section color using visual scale at fresh cut during harvest
Foliage senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
Datfsen
Plant
Senescence time
End of flowering time - Estimation
Record time (date) when the plant does not produce more new flowers in a plot
Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of all categroy/size tubers taken in a plot to the number of harvested plant in a net plot
Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of small size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Duration of heterophylly period - Computing
Compute the average of the period from emergence to first true leaf appearance on the main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Stickness scale 0-10
Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of small size ( < 500 gm) tubers in a net plot
Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers infested with mealybugs from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot at time of harvesting.
Time to first leaf emergence
Time to the first leaf emergence on a plant or sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
TIMLE
Leaf
emergence time
Medium size tubers weight per plot
Weight of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
MTW
Medium tuber
Weight
True seeds harvested
Number of true seed harvested or obained per cross or family
Tsdh
True seed
Number
Tuber beetle severity - Estimation
Tuber beetle severity or intensity estimated usually as number of nymph present in tubers at harvesting time.
Period from 5% to 95% emergence
Computation of the substraction between the necessary time before 95% and 5% emergence using after-fitting inverse regression of log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Stickiness of pounded yam
The degree to which the pounded yam is adhesive or stick to the fingure, mouth surface and teeth
StickPndedYam
Pounded yam
Stickiness
Sprout color - estimation
Record the predominant color of the sprouts (plant) per plot at 20 days after emergence
Tuber flesh color computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the average of the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Duration from median emergence to 5% senescence of subplot - Computation
Averaged senescence earliness expressed in days from median emergence to 5% senescence (i.e. 95% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 95% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Fruit developed number
Quantity of developed fruits per crosses
Nfrts
Fruit per cross
Number
Texture of pounded yam-Estimation
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when pouned yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
0-4 general scale
Total tuber weight per plant
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers per plant
TTWPL
Tuber
weight
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Bulbpl
Aerial tuber
Number
Crop vigor
Duration from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover
Canopy
Growth vigor
Foliage senescence time - Estimation
Record the date when all plants in a plot shows a sign of 100% foliage senescence
Tuber width
Average width of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Tbrwd
Tuber
Wideth
Whitness of the Flesh colour
The surface whiteness of the yam tuber flesh
Tuber flesh
color
Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation
Record time of the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vine)
Seeds set - Comp
Take count of the number of seeds set on each fruits and record the average seeds per fruit
Boiled yam purpleness
Purple colour tending to pink after cooking
BoilYamPurp
Boiled root surface
Purpleness
Flowering intensity - Estimation
Record the abundance or intesity of flowering when more than 50% of the plants are flowered in a plot
bulbil/plant
Boiled yam bitterness
Basic bitter taste like small quantity of quinine or caffeine in water
BoilYamBitt
Boiled root
Bitterness
number of branch
Color difference bewteen mean tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values at cutting and 15 minutes latter
Compute the ∆E2000 bewteen mean tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values at cutting and 15 minutes latter
Seeds germination start time
Time the first seed germination occurred
germstart
Seed
germination starting time
Big yam tuber average weight-computation
Calculated as weight of big size tubers per plot divided by total number of big size tubers per plot
Fruit set number
Intensity or proportion of fruit set or development under open or controlled pollination.
NFrtSet
Fruit set
Proportion
Date crossing-Estimation
Record the date crossing made in particular flower of a plant.
Number of true seeds sown-counting
Record the number of true seeds sown per cross or family
Mouldability scale 0-10
Shape regularity - estimation
Observe the regularity of tuber shape in visual scale
Field establishment-Computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of well-established plants in a plot from the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation
Score the intensity of tuber flesh oxidation (flesh surface color change) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using scale
Virus incidence
Reaction of the total plants per plot to the virus infection, producing yellow mottle, mosaic and leaves deformation
VirusInc
Plant
Virus incidence
Granuliness 0-100
Pounded yam aroma
The sense of smell or odor of pounded yam that reaches the nose before eating or the pounded yam reaches the mouth
arompoundedyam
Pouned yam
aroma
Tubers planted
Number of seed tubers planted in a plot or unit area
NTP
Seed tuber
Number
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation
Record date of 50% plants in a plot are showing foliage senescence
Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation
Score the severity of dry rot in harvested tubers
Date end of seed germination-Estimation
Record date the last seed germination observed per cross or family
Tuber length-Computation
Compute average tuber length of all size tubers measurement taken in a net plot
Total tubers per plant-computation
Compute as the total number of tubers in a net plot divided by the number of harvested plant per net plot
Fruit index
Fruit index is an estimation of pollinated flowers developing physiologically mature fruits
Fruit
fruiting ratio
method_of
Root knot nematode incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers showing root knot nematode symptoms from the total number of harvested tubers in effective plot
Pounded yam colour
The degree of whiteness of the pounded yam sample like a plain white paper or white flip chart/colour of boiled egg albumen, or Colour of the pounded yam comparable to that of Soymilk or “Eba” from white “Gaari”, or colour of Pounded yam comparable to that of greyness covering a boiled egg yolk, or colour of pounded yam, or colour of pounded yam comparable to that of evaporated liquid milk such as Peak milk, or colour of pounded yam comparable to boiled egg yolk that is light in colour, or colour of Pounded yam comparable to deep colour of Yellow maize, or colour of Pounded yam comparable to the colour whole wheat meal or colour of Pounded yam comparable to the colour of carton paper.
YamCol
Pounded yam
Colour
Tuber flour sugar content
Tuber flour sugar content
yam flour
content
Fruit set number - Estimation
Assess the fruit number as fruiting intensity in categorical scale when more than 50% of the plants set fruits
Stem color - Estimation
Record the predominant color of stem on mature plant at five to six month after emergence using a five color scale
Hardness scale 0-100
Tuber flesh oxidation
Tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation rate
Tfoxd
Tuber
Enzymatic oxidation rate
Boiled yam appearance
The optical appearance of boiled yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of boiled yam structure
appboiledyam
Boiled yam
appearance
Big size yam yield
Big size tubers yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
BTYld
Big tuber
yield
Tuber hairiness
Presence of secondary roots on the tuber bark
RTBS
Tuber
hairiness
plant per plot
Tuber shape - Estimation
Determination of the predominant shape in the entire family/plot as a unit
Yam odour scale 0-100
Leaf apex shape-Estimation
Record leaf apex shape of mature plants in a plot
Pounded yam stretchability
Ability of pounded yam to stretch when pulled apart with fingers
YamHdStr
Pounded yam
Stretchability
Leaf width - computation
Measure the width from the widest part of leaf using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average width
Nodes carrying cataphylles - Counting
Compute the average of the number of nodes carrying cataphylles on the main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Leaf color
The leaf surface color or pigmentation
mlfcol
Leaf
color
Bitterness 0-100
Big size tubers per plant
Number of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) per plant
NBTPL
Big tuber
number
kg
Fruits harvested number - Counting
Record the number of harvested fruits per cross
Bitterness after taste 0-100
Number of bulbil - Counting
Count the number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils produced per net plot.
Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation
Compute the proportion of seedlings survived or established well after transplant operation
1-7 scale
tons/ha
Fibrousness scale 0-100
Spines on sprout base-estimation
Record absence or presence of spines on a sprout (vine)
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Tuber
Number
number of fruit
Number of germinated seedling-Counting
Record the number of germinated seedlings per cross or family
Time to fruit setting
Times fruit formation or set on monoeciuse or femal flowers of dioeciouse yam plants
Frtset
Fruit
Fruiting ability
Smoothness of pounded yam
Smoothnessof the material, i.e., absence of lumps
smthpdym
Pounded yam
Smoothness
Width of big size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using vernier calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation
Compute the number of days required from first sprout emergence to the first leaf to emerge on a sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
Starch breakdown-Estimation
A 1.7 g portion of starch was mixed with 25 g of distilled water in the RVA sample can, after correction for the original moisture contents of the starches
Flower initaition time - Estimation
Record time (date) of first flower initiation in a plot or the date any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
0-3 scale
Sweetness 0-100
number of spikes
Width of medium size tubers-Computation
Measure the width of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg )from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Pounded yam hardness
Softness is when it is quite easy to compress the sample, while hardness is when force is used to compress the sample or takes effort to compress the sample
YamHdHar
Pounded yam
Hardness
Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation
Observe fruit setting or formation of female flowers of monoeciouse and dieciouse plants and rate the ability set for form fruits
gm/sett
Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut flesh surface color at the middle part of the tuber at harvesting time.
Tuber flesh white index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the white index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Time to fruit maturity
Times 90% of fruits attain physiological maturity
TIMFrtM
Fruit
Maturity time
Presence of bulbil - Estimation
Record the presence and absence of bulbils (aerial tubers) in the vines of yam plant
scale_of
Tuber flesh color
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
Tuber flesh
color
0-4 scale
µm
Hardness scale 0-10
Period from planting to 5% emergence
Computation of the necessary time before 5% emergence using after-fitting inverse regression of log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Fruit maturity time - Estimation
Record the date 90% of the developed fruits shows sign of physiological maturity (turning brown)
variable_of
Fruit development intensity-Estimation
Score the degree of fruit development in scale
Secondary sprouting - estimation
Record emergence of new secondary sprouts from the planted seed tuber/sett in a plot at three months after planting
Number of internode-computation
Compute average number of internodes to first branching of at least five plants internode counts taken in a plot
Number of Leaves - Computation
Count the number of leaves on at least five young plants in a plot at 30 days after emergence and record the average
Percentage
Appearance of boiled yam-Estimation
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of big size ( ?1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Aroma of boiled yam-Estimation
Assess the small or odour the boiled yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the boiled yam to eat
Color of pounded yam-Estimation
Observe the optical color or pigementation of pounded yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Chewingness scale 0-100
Colored spots on spine base-Estimation
Record of the existance of colored spot at base of spines on a sprout (vine)