A.Amele
First leaf emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
IITA
frtform
A.Amele
Fruit setting estimation 0&1
0
Absent
2
moderately attractive
0
Off white
IITA
S_Bri
Tuber dry rot incidence computation in %
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
Estbp-N
Established plants counting/plot
IITA
no oxidization
0
IITA
A.Amele
Fruit setting time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Abesnt
0
Times to bulbil initiation computation
IITA
A.Amele
Dayaetbrin
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
SPCOLO
Sprout color estimation 1-5
1
Present
IITA
Corm size estimation 1-3
Cormsize
A.Amele
Leaf shape estimation 1-7
IITA
A.Amele
Tuber flesh whiteness computation
D.Cornet
Cirad
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber flesh color upper portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_head
aborted flower. Presence of small or rudimentary inflorescences/flowers that can show an abortion or abscission point at joint of the pedicel
1
IITA
Big tubers per plant computation
A.Amele
Number of dry rot tubers count
A.Amele
IITA
Tuber flesh brownness computation
D.Cornet
Cirad
Bulbil initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A. Lopez-Montes
Aetbrin
IITA
Cirad
Earliness of emergence computation in number of days from planting to 50% sprouts emergence
D.Cornet
IITA
A.Amele
Smoothness estimation 1-3
Weight of planted tubers computation/ gm
IITA
SETW
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
IITA
Seeds sown/family counting
Btl_I
IITA
Leaf beetle damage incidence computation %
A. Lopez-Montes
Crossing date esimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
Polldate
IITA
Lower surface vein color estimation 1-4
A.Amele
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Fruit set number estimation 1-3
FRTINT
IITA
flcol_uni
Uniformity of tuber flesh color estimation binary 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
Total tubers per plot computation
IITA
TBR_Hairy
Hairiness of tuber estimation 1-3
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Difficult to cut
100
100
Granular
Time to first leaf emergence computation
A.Amele
IITA
orange
9
Cirad
Crop vigor computation in days from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover
D.Cornet
A.Amele
DAFGR
Seeds germination start time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
IITA
A.mele
pounded yam color estimation 1-5 scale
Color_PY
IITA
A.Amele
Small tubers per plot counting number
D.Cornet
Maximum ground cover computation in %
Cirad
No fibers
0
IITA
Springness estimation 1-2
A.Amele
Strepdym
Small size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Appearance of tuber surface estimation 1-4
A.Amele
Rotten tubers per plot counting number
NRDT
IITA
Cirad
Heterophylly presence estimation nominal 0&1
D.Cornet
Very Late (all the plants in a plot still show green foliage (green leaf and vine)
1
Presence of tuber dry rot estimation in 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
INODL
A.Amele
IITA
Internode length computation in cm
IITA
Petiole length measurement in cm
A.Amele
IITA
Leaf width measurement in cm
A.Amele
Easy to cut
0
A.Amele
First sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Emerdt
IITA
IITA
Corm type estimation 1-3
A.Amele
Cormtype
Tuber surface crack estimation 0-3
A.Amele
IITA
A. Amele
Twining direction estimation 1-2
IITA
A.Amele
Times to fruit maturity computation in days
DFM
IITA
Lower surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
R_Kni
Root knot nematode incidence computation %
D.Cornet
Senescence period duration computation in days between 5 and 95% senescence
Cirad
No flower or bud. No inflorescence and not flowering at all
0
like extremely
5
Purplish white
5
Weight of big tubers per plant measurement in kg
IITA
MTWPL
A.Amele
Maturity time estimation GGD
IITA
A.Amele
Non sticky
0
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam odour scale 0-100
A.Amele
Leaf position estiamtion 1-3
IITA
IITA
virus severity estimation in 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
VRSS
very sweet
5
IITA
Sprout hairiness estimation nominal 0&2
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Weight of small tubers per plot measurement in kg
Stbrwt
100
Sweet
Boiled yam appearance estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
IITA
Appearance_BY
100
Crumby
A.Amele
Average tuber width computation in cm
tbrwidth
IITA
Bulbils per plant computation
IITA
Aetbrpl
A.Amele
A.Amele
yam starch breakdown RVT
IITA
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam crumbness scale 0-100
IITA
Stickiness estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
Con_Stick_PY
IITA
Time to 50% foliage senescence computation in days
DM
A.Amele
D.Cornet
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation computation
Cirad
Tuber dormancy period estimation
Dorm
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A.Amele
Fiber estimation 1-2
Upper surface leaf hairiness estimation 0-2
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Medium tubers per plot counting number
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Upper surface vein color estimation 1-4
Tbrflcolr
A.Amele
Tuber flesh color measurement
IITA
IITA
Tuber flesh color middle portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_middle
A. Lopez-Montes
DyFemer
50% sprout emergence time computation in days
IITA
A.Amele
Neither like nor dislike
3
A.Amele
Stem hairiness estimation 0-2
IITA
IITA
Botseed
A.Amele
True seeds harvested/cross counting
Cirad
Growth cycle length computation in days between 5% emergence and 95% senescence
D.Cornet
Plant sex estimation 0-4
A.Amele
flrsex
plntsex
IITA
IITA
Seeds set/fruit computation
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Internode length measurement in cm
A.Amele
AnthracSev
IITA
yam anthracnose disease severity estimation in 1-5
A. Lopez-Montes
Stbrwidth
A.Amele
Small tuber width computation in cm
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
AeTuber
Bulbil presence estimation 0&1
IITA
5
Purple
76-100% tuber skin showing symptoms
4
1
Few
Txt_BY
Boiled yam texture estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
A.mele
very bitter
1
IITA
stemdim
Stem diameter computation in mm
A.Amele
0
no thorns or spines on tuber surface
3
Neutral
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf apex shape estimation 1-3
Boiled yam granuleness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
IITA
Btbrwt
A.Amele
Weight of big tubers per plot measurement in kg
Cirad
Crop cover compactness computation
D.Cornet
Dayendflr
End of flowering time computation in days
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
intermediate
2
Yellow
3
Medium (50% of the plants are still green or on the onset of senescence. Only 50% plants in a plot with 25% of the leaves showing senescence or slight yellowing
5
IITA
MatC
A.Amele
Senescence class estimation 1-9
A.Amele
DateHS
Foliage senescence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
1
Male flower
IITA
AetbrwtPl
A.Amele
Bulbil yield per plant measurement in kg
IITA
A.mele
Appearance_PY
Pounded yam appearance estimation 1-3 scale
A. Lopez-Montes
Tbets
Tuber beetle severity estimation in 1-5
IITA
Crazy roots presence estimation 0&1
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
DATS
IITA
Time to 50% foliage senescence estimation in yy/mm/dd
D.Cornet
Cirad
Tuber flour sugar content computation
Emergence vigor computation in number of days between 5% and 95% sprouts emergence
D.Cornet
Cirad
IITA
A.Amele
Total tuber weight per plant computation in kg
IITA
Spines on stem estimation 0-2
A.Amele
A.Amele
IITA
Fruit development status estimation 1-2
Rough
2
Starch grain size computation
Cirad
D.Cornet
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber dry rot severity estimation 0-4
S_Brs
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
yam anthracnose disease incidence computation %
AnthracInc
IITA
IITA
Big tubers per plot counting number
A.Amele
IITA
A.Amele
Flesh oxidation color estimation 1-4
Fibers
100
A.Amele
GH
IITA
Plant type estimation 1-3
Tuber flesh yellowness computation
D.Cornet
Cirad
Pollinated spikes counting
IITA
NPOLS
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
IITA
A.Amele
Number of nodes carrying cataphylles before first true leaf counting/plant
Cirad
D.Cornet
A.Amele
Big tuber average weight computation in kg
IITA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
VRSI
Virus incidence computation %
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers per plot measurement in kg
A. Lopez-Montes
Rot_Wt
IITA
Big tuber length computation in cm
IITA
A.Amele
Plant stand harvested count
No_stdh
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
A.Amele
Intensity of tuber flesh oxidation estimation 0-3
Boiled yam color estimation 1-5 scale
IITA
Color_BY
A.mele
IITA
Matfrt
A. Lopez-Montes
Fruits harvested per cross counting
IITA
Tuber flesh color lower portion estimation 1-9
Flcolr_tail
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
IITA
First inflorescence initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Cirad
Tuber flour protein content computation
D.Cornet
A.Amele
IITA
Cohesiveness estimation 1-3
A.Amele
IITA
Total tuber weight per plot computation in kg
DAEGR
End of seeds germination time estiamtion in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
Con_Taste_PY
A. Lopez-Montes
Taste estimation 1-5
IITA
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam stickness scale 0-100
IITA
pounded yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
Aroma_PY
A.mele
A.Amele
Number of internodes to first branching computation/plot
IITA
IITA
A.Amele
Flowering time computation in days
DF
IITA
TubYld
A.Amele
Total tuber yield computation in t/ha
A.Amele
Stem color estimatiion 1-5
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Bulbil yield estimation in t/ha
IITA
AetbrYld
IITA
Aetbrshap
A.Amele
Shape of bulbil estimation 1-4
Btl_S
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Leaf beetle damage severity estimation in 1-5
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam purpleness scale 0-100
Sprout length measurement in cm
A.Amele
SPRTL
IITA
Emerged plants counting/plot
IITA
A.Amele
IITA
Weight of medium tubers per plant computation kgplt
A.Amele
Spines on sprout presence estimation nominal 0&1
A.Amele
IITA
Boiled yam whiteness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
IITA
Stem height measurement in m
A.Amele
IITA
Mealybug incidence computation %
A. Lopez-Montes
M_Bi
4
like
IITA
A.Amele
Spine base color estimation nominal 0&1
IITA
Seed index computation 0 to 1
A.Amele
6
creamy
A.Amele
Average tuber weight computation in kg
IITA
A.Amele
Small tubers per plant compuatation
IITA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Pollinated florets counting
A.Amele
Scale insect infestation estimation 0-2
IITA
oxidizes less than a minure
1
TWNH
IITA
Twining habit estimation 0-1
A.Amele
3
Dark green
Present
100
Secondary sprouting estimation nominal 0&1
SECSP
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf length measurement in cm
A.Amele
IITA
soft or smooth
3
Medium tubers per plant computation
IITA
A.Amele
7
High
D.Cornet
Tuber flour starch content computation
Cirad
2
Hairy (few scattered or many roots in the surface of the tuber)
Tuber flesh texture estimation 1-3
A.Amele
IITA
Symptom on >51% of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue and covering a signifcant proprotion of the leaf surface. Areas with less than 1 cm width are coalescing to bigger spots also. Yellowing of green tissue is intense around the spots areas.
4
100
Bitter
1
Yellowish
A.Amele
fflrab
Female flowering intensity per spike estimation 1-4
IITA
IITA
M_Bs
A. Lopez-Montes
Mealybug severity estimation in 1-5
Vine cutting establishment rate percentage
A.Amele
IITA
IITA
Plant vigor estimation 1-3
A. Lopez-Montes
PLNV
1
Spherical
Medium tuber width computation in cm
A.Amele
Mtbrwidth
IITA
3
Late (75% of the plants in a plot with still green foliage but few plants (upto 25% plants in a plot) showing up to 25% of leaves senescence
Tuber thorniness estimation 0&1
IITA
Thorn
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
Young leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
Intermediate
5
IITA
A.Amele
Pollination type estimation 1-4
Pollmech
A.Amele
Tuber oxidation estimation 1-3
IITA
Oxid
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
TDMC
Dry matter content percentage
Txt_PY
Pounded yam texture estimation 1-3 scale
IITA
A.mele
D.Cornet
Tuber flesh color gradient computation
Cirad
IITA
DtFFlr
Flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
A.Amele
TBRL
IITA
Average tuber length measurement in cm
FLRI
IITA
Flowering intensity estimation 0-9
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
Weight medium tubers per plot measurement in kg
Mtbrwt
IITA
Brown
100
IITA
A.Amele
Number of branches per plant count
2
Slightly bitter
Fruit maturity time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A.Amele
A.Amele
Medium size tuber length computation in cm
IITA
few thorns or spines on tuber surface
3
1
dislikeextremely
Not sticky
3
deep purple
8
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber shape estimation 1-4
TUBSHA
IITA
Few anthracnose spots or sysmptoms on 1 t0 ~25% of the plant. One or two spots of less than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface
2
0
Not crumby
IITA
A.Amele
Leaf density estimation 1-7
DtFlrin
Flower initiation time estimation in yy/mm/dd
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Oval
2
IITA
Proportion of emerged plants (sprouts) computation/%
Ratiosp
A.Amele, A. Lopez-Mentes
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam bitterness 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
IITA
Separability of corm estimation binary 0&1
A.Amele
cormsep
IITA
50% sprout emergence time estimation in yy/mm/dd
DtFemer
A.Amele
Cirad
D.Cornet
Duration of heterophyllic period computation in days after planting
Boiled yam bitter after taste 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
0
Absent
Latency period duration computation in number of days from planting to 5% sprouts emergence
D.Cornet
Cirad
brownish white
7
IITA
A.Amele
Seeds germinated counting
Estbp-ratio
IITA
A.Amele
Field establishment rate compuation in %
Easy
100
2
Pale green
A. Lopez-Montes
fruit set number percentage
IITA
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam hardness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Boiled yam aroma estimation 1-5 scale
A.mele
Aroma_BY
IITA
A.Amele
Mature leaf color estimation 1-5
IITA
IITA
A.mele
Boiled yam taste estimation 1-5 scale
Taste_BY
0
No symptoms
IITA
A.Amele
Vine cuttings planted count
Big tuber width computation in cm
IITA
Btbrwidth
A.Amele
Many
2
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber surface texture estimation 1-2
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam chewingness scale 0-100
Tuber color uniformity computation
D.Cornet
Cirad
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam black spots presence scale 0-100
Root knot nematode severity estimation in 1-5
IITA
R_kns
A. Lopez-Montes
Foliage senescence time computation in days
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
DAYHS
IITA
Emerday
First sprout emergence time computation in days
A.Amele
4
Irregular
A.Amele
Root position estimation 1-4
IITA
IITA
TUBSIZE
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber size estimation 1-3
FrtN
Fruits developed per cross counting
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam brownness scale 0-100
entity
Not granular
0
A.Amele
IITA
Total tubers per plant computation
Boiled yam fibrousness scale 0-100
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
FSA-UAC, BÃƒË†nin
Laurent Adinsi
Boiled yam sweetness 0-100
IITA
Dayflrin
Fower initiation time computation in days
A. Lopez-Montes
No brown
0
Bulbils per plot count
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
Aetbrp
Fruit harvest time estimation in yy/mm/dd
A.Amele
IITA
3
Low
Purplish green
4
Sticky
100
Cirad
Tuber flesh color computation
D.Cornet
0
Absent
2
slightly sticky
IITA
GR
Seed germination rate percentage
A. Lopez-Montes
sticky
1
2
dislike
3
Monoecious male (m>f)
0
Absent
IITA
Weight of small tuber per plant computation kgplant
A.Amele
Anthracnose symptoms covering ~26 t0 ~50% of the plant. One or two spots of more than 1 cm diameter width, and dry tissue on the leaf surface. Small dark and no dried spots with more than 1 cm width, are present
3
Cylindrical
3
Yes
1
3
Thorny (small prominences ending in a small thorn)
IITA
A.Amele
Fruit index computation 0 to 1
0
Difficult
1
not attractive
High
100
strong or hard or lumpy
1
5
like extremely
A.Amele
First inflorescence initiation time computation
IITA
IITA
A. Lopez-Montes
Big tuber yield computation in t/ha
Number of leaves per plant count
IITA
A.Amele
sder
IITA
Seedling establishment rate percentage
A. Lopez-Montes
A.Amele
Tubers planted counting/plot
IITA
Sett-N
IITA
A.Amele
Big tuber yield adjusted computation in t/ha
attribute
2
dislike
1-25% tuber skin showing symptoms
1
A.Amele
IITA
Inflorescence type estimation
Yam ontology
D.Cornet
Cirad
Senescence earliness computation in days from median emergence to 5% senescence
Seedling survival rate percentage
A.Amele
IITA
5
Severe necrosis and death of the plant. Coalesced spots with dry tissue more than 1.5 cm of diameter and covering a great proprotion of the leaf surface. Yellowing of the gree tissue is generalised in the leaf blade.
stnp
A. Lopez-Montes
Stems per plant computation per plant
IITA
Low (flowering is scare with the presence of few flowers mostly less than 10 inflorescences per plant)
3
A. Lopez-Montes
IITA
DtendFlr
End of flowering time estimation in yy/mm/dd
Bulbil weight per plot measurement in kg
A.Amele
Aetubwtp
IITA
Tbeti
A. Lopez-Montes
Tuber beetle incidence computation %
IITA
2
Creamy white
IITA
Corm estimation binary 0&1
A.Amele
female flower
2
oxidizes more than 3 minutes
3
2
dislike
slightly oxidizing
1
Purple
100
acronym
9
Extremely pofuse (plant producing with abundant flowring mostly more than 50 inflorescences per plant)
Smooth
1
Present
100
4
Fully smooth
IITA
Canopy architecture estimation 1-4
Canopy
A. Lopez-Montes
3
highly oxidizing
9
very early (The plants are completely senescent, yellowing is complete and uniform (both leaves and vines 100% senescence)
3
very attractive
like
4
7
Profuse (plant producing many more flowers mostly 30 to 50 inflorescences per plant)
4
Long (More than 50% of the tubers sprouted at three month after harvesting time)
1
No visible symptoms of anthracnose disease or infection spot on the leaf surface
5
Moderate (producing some flowers mostly 10-29 inflorescences per plant)
early (The plants have senescent foliage (75% of the plants in a plot with 50% leaves showing sign of yellowing but the vines still green)
7
3
51-75% tuber skin showing symptoms
A.Amele
Tuber thorniness intensity estimation 0-7
IITA
26-50% tuber skin showing symptoms
2
Neither like nor dislike
3
4
Purple
1
White
like
4
oxidizes between 1 and 2 minure after cutting
2
100
Pure white
0
absence
Monoecious female(f>m)
4
0
Absent
4
like
5
like extremely
1
Rough
4
sweet
Many thorns or spines on tuber surface
7
0
No
0
No purple
dislikeextremely
1
like extremely
5
Low
0
3
Neither like nor dislike
Non flowering
0
1
presence
dislikeextremely
1
Computed as total tubers weight per plant multiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Total tuber yield adjusted-computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date first sprout or plant in a plot or unit area emerged
Times to first sprout emergence-Computation
number of spikes
Anthracnose severity - Estimation
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by yam anthracnose disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected.It is visual score in scale under screenhouse, artificial inoculation or under field natural infestation. For artificial inoculation use a suspension of three most virulent strains of Colletothrichum gloeosporioides and inoculate the plants raised from vine cutting in vertical sack or other means by spraying. For natural infestation, scores can be taken 10 to 12 weeks after planting and second scoring about 4-6 weeks before harvesting . Artificial inoculation should be scored at 3 days after inoculation(DAI) , and repeated at 7DAI, 11DAI and 15DAI
Ratio between subplot ground cover area and its respective convex hull area - Computation
Averaged crop cover compactness over two subplots images around time of 50% of maximum ground cover.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 50% of maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Images choosen as near as possible of date of time at 50% of maximum growth .
Compactness computed as the ration between ground cover area (pixels) and its respective convex hull area (pixels).
Plant
Number
Number of well established plants ( plants growing with good vigour and without severe constraints) in a plot
NESP
Established plants
Duration from median emergence to 5% senescence of subplot - Computation
Averaged senescence earliness expressed in days from median emergence to 5% senescence (i.e. 95% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 95% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Sprout color - estimation
Record the predominant color of the sprouts (plant) per plot at 20 days after emergence
Time to the first leaf emergence on a plant or sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
TIMLE
emergence time
Time to first leaf emergence
Leaf
Number
Leaf
The number of leaves on a plant
Nlfyp
Number of leaves
Black spots presence scale 0-100
fbrpdym
Pounded yam
Presenceof ?ber strands
Presence of fiber strands
Fibrousness of pounded yam
Time of fruit harvesting
DateFH
Time to fruit harvesting
Harvesting ime
Fruit
HAIRSP
Sprout hairiness
Hairs on sprout (vines)
Sprout
hairiness
Btbrwd
Big tuber
Big size tuber width
Average width of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Flower
Polltyp
pollination type
Pollination type
Mode of plant to plant pollen transfer
Weight of medium size tuber yam per plant
weight
WMTPL
Medium size tuber weight per plant
Medium tuber
Tuber flesh color lower or tail portion- Estimation
Observe and record fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the tail portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Record date of first spout emergence in a plot
Time first sprout emergence-Estimation
Female flowering intensity
Flower
abondance
Intensity or abudance of female flowers on spikes/infloresences
fflrint
0-7 scale
Boiled root surface
Brown colour of product after cooking
Boiled yam brownness
Brownness
BoilYamBrow
Pounded yam
colpoundedyam
Optical color or pigmentation of pounded yam
color
Pounded yam color
Nfrts
Quantity of developed fruits per crosses
Fruit developed number
Number
Fruit per cross
Observe the type of inflorescence and score it
Inflorescence type-Estimation
Texture in the mouth method
Put the product between the molars and mash it to assess the number of chews before swallowing
0-9 scale
Count the number of leaves on at least five young plants in a plot at 30 days after emergence and record the average
Number of Leaves - Computation
Big tuber
WBTPL
weight
Big size tuber weight per plant
Weight of big size tubers per plant
Period from planting to 5% emergence
Computation of the necessary time before 5% emergence using after-fitting inverse regression of log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Earliness of emergence
Period duration from planting to 50% sprout emergence
Sprout
Elapsed time between planting date and date of 50% emergence sprouts in a plot
Crossing date
Date crossing or pollination attempted
Plant
datcross
pollination time
1-7 general scale
0-3 scale
colbldyam
Boiled yam color
Optical color or pigmentation of boiled yam
color
Boiled yam
Observe the arrangement of leaves on stem or vine and rate it
Leaf position - Estimation
Compute the brown index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Tuber flesh brown index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Percentage
Average length of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Medium size tuber length
Length
Medium tuber
Mtbrleng
number of seed
WTP
Weight of planted tubers
Weight of seed tubers (whole seed yams or setts ) planted in a plot or per unit area. Planting material from a tuber is called sett. Seed tuber could be either small, healthy whole tuber or large tubers cut into pieces (sett)
Weight
Seed tuber
Color difference bewteen mean tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values at cutting and 15 minutes latter
Compute the âˆ†E2000 bewteen mean tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values at cutting and 15 minutes latter
Color of the sprout (vine and leaves).
color
Sprout
Sprout color
SprtCol
1-3 scale
Bulbil initiaition time - Estimation
Record date when 50% of plants in a plot begin producing bulbils or aerial tubers
Dry rot severity
Dryrot
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Yam tuber dry rot severity
Tuber
Place of roots on tubers
Roots position
Position of appearance of roots at surface of tubers
Prtbs
Tuber
Corm on tubers-Estimation
Score corm status of tubers using a binary scale
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Estimation
Record date of 50% plants in a plot are showing foliage senescence
Fruit
Frtset
Times fruit formation or set on monoeciuse or femal flowers of dioeciouse yam plants
Time to fruit setting
Fruiting ability
Canopy architecture
Canopy
architecture
Canarc
Organisation or structural arrangements of branchs and leaves distribution giving a specific shape to the above ground part of the plant
Bitterness after taste 0-100
Compute the average tuber width of all size measurement taken in a net plot
Tuber wideth-computation
Virus incidence
Virus incidence
Reaction of the total plants per plot to the virus infection, producing yellow mottle, mosaic and leaves deformation
VirusInc
Plant
Plant
Yam anthracnose disease incidence
Anthracnose incidence caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. % of anthracnose ?blight? or leaf spotaffected plants in a plot
YADI
Anthracnose incidence
Tuber flesh color head portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut tuber flesh surface color at the head portion of the tuber at harvesting time.
Hardness scale 0-100
Spines on stem density
SPNAB
density
Spine
Intensity of spines on stem (vine) above base of mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
Growth duration
Senescence earliness
Time from median emergence to 5% senescence
Canopy
Compute the number of medium size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of medium size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Medium size tubers per plant-computation
Intensity or proportion of fruit set or development under open or controlled pollination.
Fruit set
NFrtSet
Fruit set number
Proportion
Determination of predominant canopy architecture
Canopy architecture - Estimation
Number of branchs - computation
Count the number of branches above ground on at least five mature plants in a plot and record the average
Dry rot presence on harvested tubers-Estimation
Observe the occurance or presence of dry rot caused by nematods (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) on harvested tubers and record the presence and absence
Subplot maximum ground cover from weekly image analysis - Computation
Averaged maximum ground cover over two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Maximum ground cover computed from ground cover dynamic modeled using time to event Beta Growth model.
Take count of the number of seeds set on each fruits and record the average seeds per fruit
Seeds set - Comp
Record time (date) of first flower initiation in a plot or the date any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Flower initaition time - Estimation
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity-Estimation
Score the intensity of tuber flesh oxidation (flesh surface color change) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using scale
Whiteness scale 0-100
Observe and score scale insect infestation on tuber at harvest
Scale insect infestation - Estimation
Pollinated spike number - Estimation
Count the number of pollinated spikes per female parent per cross
Vine
Twining direction
twining direction
twndir
Twining direction
Score the smoothnessof the pounded yam , i.e., absence of lumps by finger feeling and using intensity scale
Smoothness of pounded yam- Estimation
plant per plot
Seeds germination start time
germination starting time
germstart
Seed
Time the first seed germination occurred
Record the total number of true seed or botanical seed harvested or obtained per cross or family
Quantity of true seed harvested -Counting
1-5 scale
content
Tuber flour starch content
Tuber flour starch content
yam flour
Seed
germination ending time
Seeds germination end time
Time last seed germination occurred
germend
number
Number of stems (vines) with leaves and branches per plant
Stems per plant
Nstem
Stem
Record time in minutes lasted for cut tuber flesh to become or not oxidized and score in scale
Tuber oxidation-Estimation
Ability to set or form fruts-Estimation
Observe fruit setting or formation of female flowers of monoeciouse and dieciouse plants and rate the ability set for form fruits
Fruit
Fruit index is an estimation of pollinated flowers developing physiologically mature fruits
Fruit index
fruiting ratio
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of small size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Small size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute the average of the period from emergence to first true leaf appearance on the main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Duration of heterophylly period - Computing
Tubers planted
Number of seed tubers planted in a plot or unit area
Seed tuber
Number
NTP
Foliage senescence time - Estimation
Record the date when all plants in a plot shows a sign of 100% foliage senescence
1-4 scale
Compute the yellow index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Tuber flesh yellow index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
1-5 scale
Microscopy image analysis
Microscopy (10x) image analysis of iodin colored yam tuber flour (0.5mm)
FrtDev
Fruit
status
Fruit development status on monoecious and female flower of dioeciouse yam plant
Status of fruit development
Presence of cataphylle
Observe the presence or absence of cataphylle
Count the number of tubers (seed yams or setts) planted per plot (unit area)
Tubers (seed yams or setts) planted - Counting
1-5 scale
Compute average number of internodes to first branching of at least five plants internode counts taken in a plot
Number of internode-computation
Emerged sprouts -Counting
Count the emerged plants (sprouts) per plot every week starting from first plant/sprout emergence date till the last plant or spourt emerge in a plot
Aerial tuber
Yield of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Yield
Bulbyld
Bulbil yield
%
kg
TTWP
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers harvested in a net plot
Total fresh tuber weight per plot
weight
Tuber
Plant or sprout
Proportion
Proportion of plants /sprouts emerged in a plot
PPE
Proportion of emerged plants
Record the date 90% of the developed fruits shows sign of physiological maturity (turning brown)
Fruit maturity time - Estimation
Tuber flour sugar content
content
Tuber flour sugar content
yam flour
Tuber flesh color computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the average of the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Hairiness of tuber bark - Estimation
Record the intensity of tuber hairs or secondary roots on the surface of harvested tubers
Aerial tuber
Presence of bulbils or aerial tubers in the nodes of the vines
Presence of bulbil
Bulbil
Bulbil presence
Corm on tuber
Presence or absence of corm on tuber
Corm
Presence
corm
rvt
Average width of medium size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Mtbrwd
Medium size tuber width
Medium tuber
Length
Tuber thorniness
Thorniness
Exsistence of thorns on the tuber surface
Tuber
Thorn
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of pouned yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Appearance of pounded yam-Estimation
Record of the existance of colored spot at base of spines on a sprout (vine)
Colored spots on spine base-Estimation
Stem color
Stmcol
The surface color of stem
color
Stem
Emergence vigor
Sprout
Period duration from first to last sprouts emergence
Elapsed time between time of 5th and 95th percentiles emergence sprouts in a plot
Stem height - computation
Measure the length or height of stem or vine of at least five mature plants in a plot using measuring tape at five to six months after sprout emergence and record the average
Assess the proportion of sprouted tubers at different time interval (once a week) from harvesting up to three months after harvesting and rate the dormancy period in scale
Dormancy period -Estimation
Tuber
MbugInc
Incidence of mealybug tuber infestation.
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
Mealybug tuber infestation incidence
0-2 scale
Weight of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
MTW
Medium size tubers weight per plot
Medium tuber
Weight
Total tuber yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
Total tuber yield
Tuber
TTYNA
yield
Record time (date) when the plant does not produce more new flowers in a plot
End of flowering time - Estimation
Average tuber weight in kg
Average tuber weight
ATW
Weight
Tuber
Big size tubers per plant-computation
Compute the number of big size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of big size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Score the presence or absence of ?ber strands on pounded yam
Presence of fiber strand-Estimation
Tuber flesh
color
The surface whiteness of the yam tuber flesh
Whitness of the Flesh colour
Times to 50% spout emergence-Computation
Compute the number of days required from date of planting to the date 50% of sprouts or plants in a plot emerged
Leaf color - Estimation
Assess the color of leaf on a young plant
Tuber beetle severity
Tuber beetle severity
Severity of tuber beetle damage.
Tubtlsev
Tuber
Corm size
Size
corsz
Corm
Size of corm in relation to tuber
Number of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) per plant
number
Big size tubers per plant
Big tuber
NBTPL
Mean color difference between average tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values and tuber flesh color of individual pixel values
Compute the âˆ†E2000 between average tuber flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values and tuber flesh color of individual pixel values
days
Scoring the most frequent flower sex type when more than 50% of the plants are flowered
Plant or flower sex-Estimation
Number of bulbil - Computation
Count number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils on plants in a net plot and compute the average number bulbils per plant
Thorn or spine intesity
ThornInt
Intensity of thorns on the tuber surface
Tuber
Tuber thorniness intensity
Observe relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by virus disease and record the severity as a proportion or percentage of plant surface affected using visual five ordinal scale . Predominant severity per plot must be registered at least thrice : 8 to 10 weeks after planting, 4 to 6 weeks after first scoring and the last scoring at 4 to 6 weeks after the second scoring
Viruses infection severity - Estimation
Leaf
Leaf beetle severity
Severity of leaf beetle damage.
Leaf beetle damage severity
Lfbtsev
Number
Big tuber
Number of big size tubers that weighing ?1 kg in a net plot or unit area
Big size tubers per plot
NBTP
Quanity of sown true (botanical) seeds germinated per cross or family
sdgerm
Seeds germinated
Seed germinated
Number
1-5 scale
TIMsen
Time to 50% foliage senescence
50% Senescence time
Time when 50% of the plants in a plot are showing signs of foliage senescence
Plant
Tubtlinc
Incidence of tuber beetle damage.
Tuber
Tuber beetle incidence
Tuber beetle incidence
BoilYamSweet
Boiled root
Basic light sugary taste like a little glucose or sucrose in water solution
Sweetness
Boiled yam sweetness
Leaf Width
Width of leaf
lfwdt
Leaf
width
Bulbil shape
Predominant shape of the bulbils
Aerial tuber
Bulbsp
Shape
Bulbil weight
Bulbwtp
Aerial tuber
Weight
Weight of vine bulbils or aerial tubers harvest
Time between 5 and 95% senescence
Senescence duration
Senescence duration
Canopy
Computing the number of days required from 50% of sprout emergence to when plant does not produce more new flowers.
End of flowering time - Computation
kg/plant
Tuber thorniness intensity-Estimation
Record the degree of thorns or spines on tuber surface in visual scale
cm
Record appearance of cracks on tuber surface as absent, few and many
Cracks on the tuber surface-Estimation
Dryrot
Number
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Tuber
Internode length -computation
Measure the internode length of five plants before senescence at 1 meter height and record the average
BoilYamHdCrum
Boiled yam crumbness
Property of the product to crumble or break between the fingers
Boiled root
Crumbness in hand
Observe the appearance (structure and pigmentation) of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how attractive or appealing on table or plate to eat
Appearance of boiled yam-Estimation
50% flowering time - Estimation
Record time (date) 50% plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
Big size yam yield
Big size tubers yield nonadjusted tons per hectare
Big tuber
yield
BTYld
Measure the weight of N planted tubers (seed yams or setts) and record the average
Setts or seed yams planted weight - Computation
Tuber
Average width of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Tuber width
Wideth
Tbrwd
Measure the width of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using vernier calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of big size tubers-Computation
Assess the fruit number as fruiting intensity in categorical scale when more than 50% of the plants set fruits
Fruit set number - Estimation
Tuber
Tfoxd
Enzymatic oxidation rate
Tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation rate
Tuber flesh oxidation
Compute number of growing degree days required from planting (or 50% emergence) to 50% foliage senescence or maturity.
Growing degree days to maturity-Estimation
Record the presence or absence of thorns or spines on the tuber skin in visual scale
Tuber thorniness - Estimation
Number of small size tubers that weighing <0.5kg in a net plot or unit area
NSTP
Number
Small size tubers per plot
Small tuber
Tendency of climbing or trailling
twining habit
Twining habit
TWNH
Plant
TNTP
Number of total (all size) tubers in a net plot or unit area
Total tubers per plot
Tuber
Number
length
Length of sprouted shoots (vines)
Sprout length
Sprout
Spleng
Compute as the total number of tubers in a net plot divided by the number of harvested plant per net plot
Total tubers per plant-computation
Fruits harvested number - Counting
Record the number of harvested fruits per cross
Plant Vigor - Estimation
Visual assessment of the plant vigour in a plot at two month after planting
Tuber
Yam starch breakdown
The breakdown of yam starch extracted from fresh tubers were determined using a Rapid Visco-Analyser (RVA-TecMaster, Perten Instruments, Australia)
starchbrk
starch
Internode length
length
Stem internode
Internode length
Intndlngth
Boiled root surface
Boiled yam purpleness
Purpleness
Purple colour tending to pink after cooking
BoilYamPurp
Calculated as total tuber weight per plot divided by total number of tubers per plot
Average tuber weight -computation
Leaf shape of plants
shape
Leaf
Leaf shape
Lfshp
Heterophylly duration
Plant
Mean duration between fisrt emergence and first true leaf apprearance on main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Duration from emergence to first true leaf
Date (yyyymmdd)
Boiled root
Bitterness after taste
Boiled yam bitter after taste
During chewing, bitter taste after swallowing, eg there is a light bitter aftertaste
BoilYamBitteraft
Period from 5% to 95% emergence
Computation of the substraction between the necessary time before 95% and 5% emergence using after-fitting inverse regression of log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Hairiness of sprout - Estimation
Record existance of hairs on a sprout (vine)
Tuber
RKNInc
Root knot incidence caused by Meloidogyne spp.
Root knot nematode damage incidence
Root knot nematode incidence
PVigor
The vigour of the vine and leaves of the new plant.
vigor
Plant Vigor
Plant
Yam anthracnose disease severity
Plant
Anthracnose severity caused by the pathogen Colletotricum gloeosporioides. The reaction of plants in a plot to anthracnose infestation (blight or leaf spot) under screenhouse or in the field under natural infestation or artificial inoculation
Anthracnose severity
YADS
Tuber flesh color middle portion - Estimation
Observe and record the fresh cut flesh surface color at the middle part of the tuber at harvesting time.
Odour of boiled yam
BoilYamOdor
Yam odour
Boiled yam Yam flavor
Boiled root
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in longitudinal section
color
Tuber flesh uniformity
Tuber flesh
Sprout length-computation
Compute the average sprout length of five representative plants measurement taken in a plot
Tuber surface smoothness
Tbrtxtur
Tuber
Tuber surface texture
texture
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per hectar- Computation
Computed the yield of bulbil per hectare using the formula.
Averaged crop vigor expressed in days from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover in subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 80% of maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Duration from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover of subplot - Computation
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing seeds
Seed index
Tuber size
TbrSz
Tuber
Tuber size
Size
Measure the length of petiole using measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average length
Petiole length - Computation
The surface browness of the yam tuber flesh
Browness of the Tuber flesh colour
Tuber flesh
color
Computed as total tuber weight per plot divided by size of net or effective harvest plot and result multiplied by 10
Tuber yield no adjusted- Computation
Average length of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Small size tuber length
Length
Stbrleng
Small tuber
Big tuber
Big size tuber length
Btbrleng
Average length of big size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Fruit maturity time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from fruit set to fruit phyisological maturity
number of fruits
Measure the length of at most five big size tubers (?1kg) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Length of big size tubers-Computation
Viruses infection incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion of virus symptomatic individuals or their parts or commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Take virus incidence recording thrice: First inspection at 8 to 10 weeks after planting and second inspection after 4 to 6 weeks after first inspection for virus symptoms and the third and final inspection 4 to 6 weeks after the second inspection .
Boiled root
Fibrousness in hand
BoilYamHdFibr
Boiled yam fibrousness
Refers to the presence of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Stbrwd
Small tuber
Length
Average width of small size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Small size tuber width
Bulbil yield (Plot weight) - Measurement
Record the fresh weight of harvested bulbil or aerial tuber per net plot
bulbil/plant
Record the weight of big size ( ?1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Big size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Flower initaition time - Computation
Computing the number of days required from first sprout emergence to first flower initiation
Vine cuttings planted -counting
Count the numeber vine cuttings planted
Compute the sum of all category/size tubers (big, medium, small and rotten/diseased) in a net plot
Total tuber harvested number-computation
Tuber shape - Estimation
Determination of the predominant shape in the entire family/plot as a unit
Time to bulbil initiation
Aerial tuber
Bulbil initiation time
TIMbulb
duration
Compute the number of days required from first sprout emergence to the first leaf to emerge on a sprouted shoot (vine) in a plot
Times to the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Computation
TbrSh
Shape
Tuber
Tuber predominant shape
Tuber shape
NMTPL
Number of medium size tubers (? 0.5kg and <1 kg) per plant
Medium tuber
Medium size tubers per plant
Number
Number
Number of bulbil
Bulbp
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Aerial tuber
Spine on sprout
Presence of spines on sprout (vines)
Presense
SPNSP
Spines on sprout presence
length
Leaf length
Length of leaf
Leaf
lflngth
number of florets
A 1.7 g portion of starch was mixed with 25 g of distilled water in the RVA sample can, after correction for the original moisture contents of the starches
Starch breakdown-Estimation
Plant or sprout
Number of emerged plants
Number of an emerged plants (sprouts) in a plot
NEP
Number
Observe the optical color or pigementation of boiled yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Color of boiled yam-Estimation
Granuliness 0-100
Take count of well established plants in a plot usually at two months after planting
Number of well established plants -Counting
presence
Appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface
Crazy roots
CRZROOT
Crazy roots presence
Brownness scale 0-100
Presence of cataphylles during early stage
Heterophylly presence
Presence
Plant
Pollinated florets number
number
Quantity of Female Flowers which has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
Inflorescence
NpollF
Compute the sum all category or size of tubers (Big, medium, small size, and rotten and diseased) fresh weight per plot
Total tuber fresh weight per plot -computation
Select at least five random whole tubers from a net plot and cut small slices (1-2 mm) from proximal, middle and distal portion and mixed thoroughly. Record fresh weight and determin dry weight of samples by drying at 70Ã¢Ë†Å¾C for 72 h in a forced air oven. A proportion between the dry weight and the fresh weight is calculated.
Tuber dry matter content - Computation
Leaf shape-Estimation
Record leaf shape of mature plants in a plot
hairiness
Tuber hairiness
RTBS
Tuber
Presence of secondary roots on the tuber bark
appboiledyam
The optical appearance of boiled yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of boiled yam structure
Boiled yam
Boiled yam appearance
appearance
Small size tubers per plant-Computation
Compute the number of small size tubers produced per plant using the formula number of small size tuber in a plot divided by the total number of harvested plants
Medium size tubers harvested number- counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ? 500 gm and <1 kg harvested per effective plot
Observe the leaf abundance or mass on a mature plant and rate the density
Leaf density - Estimation
Compute the ratio of pollinated florets developing mature fruits
Fruit index
Dormancy period
Tuber dormancy period
Tuber
TubDorm
Tuber dormancy period
branch
Number
Branch number
Number of branches above ground
Branch
SecSP
Emergence of secondary sprouts on a plant
Sprout
Secondary sprouting
Secondary sprouting
Starch grain size
yam flour
Size
Mean starch grain size of yam tuber flour
Senescence- Estimation
Observe the status of foliage senescence (leaf or vine yellowing) of plants in plot at 6 month onward and rate the maturity status
Number of medium size tubers that weighing ? 0.5kg and <1 kg in a net plot or unit area
Medium tuber
NMTP
Number
Medium size tubers per plot
Tuber cross section
Uniformity of tuber flesh surface color in cross-section ( from cortex to center)
color
Utfc
Tuber flesh cross-section color uniformity
STRATE
Proportion of plants in a plot well established (plantsgrowing with good vigour and without severe constraints)
Proportion
Plant
Proportion of established plants
Stickiness
StickPndedYam
The degree to which the pounded yam is adhesive or stick to the fingure, mouth surface and teeth
Pounded yam
Stickiness of pounded yam
SE
Plant
Senescence
Maturity class
Foliage senescence or maturity class
1-3 scale
Aroma of boiled yam-Estimation
Assess the small or odour the boiled yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the boiled yam to eat
Sweetness 0-100
Stem
Stem hairiness
Hairiness of stem
hairiness
stmhair
Big size tubers yield adjusted tons per hectare
Big size tuber yield adjusted
Big tuber
yield
BTYA
Record the texture of tuber flesh using scale
Tuber flesh texture-Estimation
Yam odour scale 0-100
Compute the proportion of seedlings per family (cross) establish well and ready for transplanting, usually recorded at five weeks after sowing.
Seedling establishment rate-computation
Record shape of bulbils or aerial tubers in scale
Bulbil shape-Estimation
Prediction of sugar content using NIRS spectra (FOSS 6500) of tuber flour sample
NIRS model prediction - computation
Leaf
Arrangement of leaves on stem or vine
arrangement
Leaf position
lfpst
Average length of all size tubers harvested in a net plot or unit area
Length
Tuber length
Tuber
Tbrleng
1-5 general scale
Plant type
Plant
Plntype
A tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain a certain mature height and spread
growth habit
Emerged sprouts or plants proportion-Computation
Compute the proportion or ratio of plants/sprouts emerged as the number of emerged plants/sprouts divided by the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted in a plot multiplied by 100
Record the presence and absence of bulbils (aerial tubers) in the vines of yam plant
Presence of bulbil - Estimation
seed set ratio
Seed index
Seed
Seed index is an estimation of pollinated flowers producing seeds
STMDM
diameter
Stem
Stem diameter of a mature plant (5 to 6 month old plant)
Stem diameter
Compute the proportion or ratio of vines cuttings survive and producing shoots from the total of planted vine cuttings
Vines established-computation
Compute the weight to harvested bulbils per plant
Bulbil yield (fresh weight) per plant-computation
Observe the femal flowering intensity or abudance per inflorences and rate
Femal flowers abundance or intensity per inflorescence-Estimation
Color of pounded yam-Estimation
Observe the optical color or pigementation of pounded yam and make visual score using scale how acceptable or appealing on table or plate to eat
Nodes carrying cataphylle per plant
Leaf hairiness - Estimation
Assess hairiness of leaf surface (lower part)
Boiled root surface
Boiled yam whiteness
BoilYamWhit
Both inner and outer colour can range from light yellowish (off-white) to white (pure white)
Whiteness
Taste method
After swallowing, observe the feeling or sensation of the bitter taste on the tongue and assess its intensity
Boiled yam granuleness
Granuliness in mouth
Refers to the presence of small grains during chewing
Boiled root
BoilYamMthGran
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when boiled yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Texture of boiled yam-Estimation
Rotten tubers in a plot number-counting
Count the number of rotten and/or diseased tubers in effective plot
First inflorescence time - Estimation
Record date when plant/s having the first inflorescence in a plot
Tuber cracks
CTBRS
Cracks on tuber surface
Tuber
Cracks
Cohesiveness of pounded yam- Estimation
Score the degree to which particles of a pounded yam stick together or how moldable it is using intensity scale
Color difference bewteen mean tuber head and tail flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values
Compute the âˆ†E2000 bewteen mean tuber head and tail flesh color computed from standardized image L*a*b* values
Crop folliage compactness
Canopy
Architecture
Crop cover compactness
Record the tendency of vine to twine or climb
Twining habit-Estimation
Measure the width of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of small size tubers-Computation
Stickness scale 0-100
Averaged senescence period duration expressed in days between 5 and 95% senescence (i.e. 95% and 5% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Time at 95% and 5% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Duration between 5 and 95% senescence of subplot - Computation
Stem diameter-computation
Measure the stem diameter at 15 cm above the base of five plants before senescence in a plot and record the average
Record the abundance or intesity of flowering when more than 50% of the plants are flowered in a plot
Flowering intensity - Estimation
BoilYamBitt
Bitterness
Boiled yam bitterness
Boiled root
Basic bitter taste like small quantity of quinine or caffeine in water
Boiled yam stickness
BoilYamHdStick
Boiled root
Stickness in hand
Property related to the adhesion of the product between the fingers
0-1 scale
Record the predominant color of stem on mature plant at five to six month after emergence using a five color scale
Stem color - Estimation
tons/ha
Record the corm ability to be separated from tuber in a binary scale
Corm separation from tuber-Estimation
Vein color
Color or pigmentation of leaf vein
Leaf
lveincol
vein color
Number
Seedling
Seedling transplant survival rate
Survival rate
Tsurvrat
Establishment rate of seedlings four weeks after transplanting operation
Crumbness scale 0-100
Time when 50% of the plants flower in a plot
50% flowering time
Time to 50% flowering
Plant
TIMFL
separation
Corm separability from tuber
Corm separation from tuber
Corm
corsep
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Intoxd
Tuber
Oxidation intensity
Tuber flesh oxidation intensity
Sensory test of how soft or hard, smooth or lumpy when pouned yam sensed during mastication in mouth or feeling with hand
Texture of pounded yam-Estimation
Compute average of the number of stems (vines) per established plants in a plot
Number of stems per plant-computation
Measure the length from lobes to the tip using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant and at leat five plants on a plot), and record the average length
Leaf length - computation
50% sprout emergence time
Time to 50% sprouts (plants) emerge in a plot
TIMSE
50% emergence time
Plant or sprout
Number
Number of nodes carrying cataphylles
Plant
Mean number of nodes carrying cataphylles on main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
1-4 score
Compute the number of days required from sprout emergence or planting to when all plants had fully senesced
Foliage senescence time - Computation
uniteless
Pollination type-Estimation
Record the method used to transfer the pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same or different plant of the same species
0-1 scale
Tbrappr
Tuber
Tuber appearance
Appearance
Tuber surface look in relation to presence or absence of roots, thorns and sprouted buds on the tuber surface
Leaf density
Leaf
density
Variation in leaf mass of the plant
Lfden
Compute the proportion of sown true or botanical seed which germinate and produce seedling ready for transplant , usually observed at three weeks after sowing.
Germination rate - Computation
0-4 general scale
Maturity time
Fruit
Times 90% of fruits attain physiological maturity
Time to fruit maturity
TIMFrtM
Purpleness scale 0-100
Rotten Tuber
Weight of rotten/diseased tubers
Weight
RDTW
Rotten tuber weight
Tuber flesh cross section color uniformity-estimation
Record the uniformity of tuber flesh cross-section color using visual scale at fresh cut during harvest
Sdsown
Number
Seeds sown
Seed sown
Quantity of botanical or true seeds sown per family or cross
Pounded yam
sprgpdym
Distance to which the deformed material can be sretchable
Springiness
Springiness of pounded yam
Maturity time
Plant
Length of time toward crop maturity
Mat
Time to maturity
gm/sett
Maximum ground cover
Maximum ground cover
Maximum ground cover
Canopy
Assess the color of leaf vein on the upper surface
Vein color - Estimation
Corm type
Corm
Corm type
cortyp
Type
Root knot nematode severity - Estimation
Root knot nematode severity estimation in a range from no symptoms to highly severe galling scored in secondary roots of the plant and tubers adventitious roots.
Weight
Big tuber
Big size tubers weight per plot
Weight of big size tubers ( ?1 kg) in a net plot or unit area
BTW
Total tuber fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of all categroy/size tubers taken in a plot to the number of harvested plant in a net plot
Small size tubers harvested per plot number - counting
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing less than 500 gm harvested per effective plot
Dry matter content
Tuber dry matter content
TubDMC
Tuber
Proportion of dry matter in the tuber.
Time of first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vines)-Estimation
Record time of the first leaf emergence on sprouted shoot (vine)
Number of plant
Computation of inflection point value using log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting
Period from planting to median emergence
Fruit harvesting time- Estimation
Record the date of fruits harvest in a crossing block or from plant
First inflorescence time - Compuation
Compute the number of days required to first inflorescence emergence in a plot
Record the corm type as regular, transversally elongated or brached using scale
Corm type-Estimation
After breaking or cutting, breaking or crumbling, evaluate the intensity of fine fibers between the fingers and visible to the eye
Texture in the hand method
content
Tuber flour protein content
yam flour
Tuber flour protein content
1-3 scale
Stand harvested number
Number of plants harvested
Haversted plant
number
NPH
Stem height
Stem
height
Height or the length of stem
Stmht
Presence of spot on spine base
Presence of colored spots at the spine base of sprouted shoots (vine) with spines
SPBCOL
Spine
colored spot
tuber number/plant
Abundance or degree of flowering
Flowering intensity
Flrint
flowering intensity
Plant
Compute the proportion of seedlings survived or established well after transplant operation
Seedling tranplant survival rate-computation
Cohesiveness of pounded yam
Degree to which particles of a sample stick together or how moldable it is
Pounded yam
Cohesiveness
cohpdym
Senescence time
Datfsen
Foliage senescence time
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
Plant
1-2 scale
Compute the white index based on the flesh surface color of tuber longitudinal section using image analysis with a color correction based on a custom color chart
Tuber flesh white index computation from standardized image L*a*b* values
Leaf width - computation
Measure the width from the widest part of leaf using a measuring tape on sampled 20 adult leaves ( four leaves per plant on at leat five plants in a plot), and record the average width
1-9 scale
Plant harvested number - Counting
Counting the number of plants where tubers were harvested in a plot
Ease of chewing
Boiled root
Property related to the number of chews necessary to swallow the product
BoilYamMthChew
Boiled yam easiness to chew
Tuber flesh
The surface yellowness of the yam tuber flesh
Yellowness of the Flesh colour
color
Tuber surface appearance - Estimation
Observe the appearance of roots, thones and srout buds on surface of harvested tubers and make visual score using scale
Averaged growth cycle duration expressed in days between 5% emergence and 95% senescence (i.e. 5% of maximum ground cover after time to maximum ground cover) in two subplots.
Ground cover computed from weekly images analysis.
Median senescence computed from inflection point value using log-logistic time-to-event modeling of weekly sprout counts expressed in days after planting.
Time at 5% of maximum growth after time at maximum growth computed via inverse regression of time to event Beta ground cover dynamic model.
Duration between 5% emergence and 95% senescence of subplot - Computation
Assess the small or odour the pounded yam that sensed at the nose before the yam reaches mouth and make sensory score using scale how appetizing or appealing the pounded yam to eat
Aroma of pounded yam-Estimation
Number of small size tubers ( <0.5kg) per plant
Small tuber
Small size tubers per plant
NSTPL
Number
Mealybug tuber severity estimation on infested tubers at time harvesting
Mealybug tuber severity - Estimation
GDDÂ°C
Nodes carrying cataphylles - Counting
Compute the average of the number of nodes carrying cataphylles on the main stem of 5 plants choosen randomly
Score the degree of fruit development in scale
Fruit development intensity-Estimation
Record the number of germinated seedlings per cross or family
Number of germinated seedling-Counting
Bitterness 0-100
Odour method
Take a whiff and evaluate the intensity of yam odour
Density of spines on stem base of a plant-Etimation
Visual assessment of spines on a stem (vine) above the base of mature plants in a plot
Measure the flesh surface color of tuber (head, middle and tail portion) at different time interval (0, 30, 60, 180 minutes after cutting) using colorimeter (a color spectrophotometer) or standard color chart.
Tuber flesh color reading -measurement
Leaf beetle severity - Estimation
Assess the leaf beetle infestation at two and five months after planting and record its severity
Leaf beetle damage incidence
Incidence of leaf beetle damage.
Leaf
Lfbtinc
Leaf beetle incidence
TastePndedYam
Pounded yam
Taste of pounded yam
taste
Taste of pounded yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
Âµm
Compute number of days required from sprout emergence to 50% of plants in a plot start forming bulbils or aerial tubers
Bulbil initiation time - Computation
Record absence or presence of spines on a sprout (vine)
Spines on sprout base-estimation
Tuber flesh
Tbrfclr
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
color
Tuber flesh color
Compute the proportion tubers infested with mealybugs from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot at time of harvesting.
Mealybug tuber incidence - Computation
m
Growth cycle length
Canopy
Growth cycle length
Time between 5% emergence and 95% senescence
Number of true seeds sown-counting
Record the number of true seeds sown per cross or family
Time 50% of sprout emergence-Estimation
Record date 50% of sprouts in a plot emerged
Hair on stem - Estimation
Observe the presence or absence of hairs on stem surface
Boiled yam taste
Tastebldyam
Boiled yam
taste
Taste of boiled yam when eaten without any additional complementary food
Tuber flesh browning
Tuber flesh
Oxidation intensity
Intensity of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation (degree of flesh color change or browning of cut yam tuber)
Record appearance of crazy roots on tuber surface at harvest
Crazy roots presence on tubers at harvest-Estimation
yield
TTYA
Total tuber yield adjusted
Tuber
Total tuber yield adjusted tons per hectare
Compute average tuber length of all size tubers measurement taken in a net plot
Tuber length-Computation
1-3 general scale
Compute the proportion or ratio of well-established plants in a plot from the total number of tubers (seed yam or setts) planted
Field establishment-Computation
Time to 50% foliage senescence time - Computation
Compute the number of days required for 50% of the plants in a plot showing foliage senescence
number of branch
Inflorescence type
The arrangement of flowers on stem or twig of a plant
Inft
type
Inflorescence
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of big size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
Big size yam fresh weight per plant- computation
The physical attributes of boiled yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
texture
txtboiledyam
Boiled yam
Boiled yam texture
Period duration from planting to first sprouts emergence
Latency before emergence
Sprout
Elapsed time between planting date and date of 5th percentile emergence sprouts in a plot
Tuber number/plot
scale insect infestation
Scale insect infestation
Scalisec
Scale insect infestation on tubers at harvest
Tuber
Tuber
Foxdc
Oxidation color
Surface color resulting of tuber flesh enzymatic oxidation
Tuber flesh oxidation color
NVP
Plant
Vine cuttings planted
number
Vine cuttings planted
Corm size-Estimation
Record corm size in relation to tuber size using three scale
The leaf surface color or pigmentation
Leaf
color
mlfcol
Leaf color
txtpoundedyam
Pounded yam texture
The physical attributes of pounded yam such as soft or hard/strong , smooth or lumpy when sensed by touch in mouth or with hands
texture
Pounded yam
Record the number of developed fruits or fruit set in pollinated flowers/inflorescence
Fruits developed number - Counting
Count the number of aerial tubers or vine bulbils produced per net plot.
Number of bulbil - Counting
Severity of mealybug tuber infestation.
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
Tuber
Mealybug tuber infestation severity
MbugSev
Appearance method
Observe the surface of product and evaluate the frequency/number of the black points
Plant
TIMinflor
Inflorescence initiation time
Time of first inflorescence initiation
Inflorescence initiation time
Smoothness
Smoothnessof the material, i.e., absence of lumps
Smoothness of pounded yam
smthpdym
Pounded yam
Tuber beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers with tubers beetle damage from the total number of harvested tubers in the effective plot at harvesting time.
plants per plot
First emergence time
Time to the first sprout (plant) emerge in a plot
First sprout emergence time
TIMFSE
Plant or sprout
Anthracnose incidence - Estimation
Compute the proportion of anthracnose damaged individuals or their parts , commonly the portion of plant units in a plot. Count anthracnose disease ?blight? or leaf spot affected plants in plot twice (First inspection at 10 to 12 weeks post planting and second inspection after 2 to 4 weeks before harvesting ) and compute the proportion of damanged
Tuber surface texture - Estimation
Record the smoothness or roughness of tuber skin in visual scale
Plant
Time of the first flower initiation on a plant/s in a plot or any of the plants in a plot shows the first flower
Flower initiation time
Time to flower initiation
TIMFlrin
Total fresh weight of all category or size tubers per plant
Total tuber weight per plant
Tuber
TTWPL
weight
Tuber beetle severity - Estimation
Tuber beetle severity or intensity estimated usually as number of nymph present in tubers at harvesting time.
Count the number of tubers in a plot weighing ?1 kg harvested per effective plot
Big size tubers harvested number - counting
0-4 scale
Record weight of rotten and/or diseased tubers harvested in a net plot
Rotten tuber fresh weight per plot - Measurement
Senescence time
Foliage senescence time
TIMfsen
Plant
Time to all plants in a plot or unit area show full or complete foliage senescence
germRate
Seed
A proportion of sown true (botanical) seed which germinate and produce seedling
germination rate
Seed germination rate
True seed
Number of true seed harvested or obained per cross or family
True seeds harvested
Tsdh
Number
Big size yam yield adjusted-computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per per plant mutiplied by planting density and result divided by 1000
Count the number of pollinated florets per female parent per cross
Floret pollinated number - Counting
Record the date crossing made in particular flower of a plant.
Date crossing-Estimation
Tuber flesh oxidation color-Estimation
Record the flesh enzymatic oxidation color using color scale
Bulbpl
Aerial tuber
Number
Number of bulbil
Number of bulbils or aerial tubers produced
Plant type-Estimation
Visual assessment of the tendency of a plant to grow in a certain shape and to attain mature height and spread
Length of small size tubers-Computation
Measure the length of at most five small size tubers (<500 gm) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Record the twining or climbing direction of the vine
Twining direction-Estimation
Texture of tuber flesh
Tuber flesh
Txf
texture
Tuber flesh texture
number of leaf
Petiole
petlngth
Petiole length
Length of petiole
Lengh
Record emergence of new secondary sprouts from the planted seed tuber/sett in a plot at three months after planting
Secondary sprouting - estimation
Root knot severity caused by Meloidogyne spp.
Root knot nematode severity
Tuber
Root knot nematode severity
RKNSev
Establishment rate
Establishment rate of seedlings
Seedling Establishment rate
Seedling
sderat
Canopy
Crop vigor
Duration from median emergence to 80% of maximum ground cover
Growth vigor
method_of
Tuber
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Yam tuber dry rot presence
Dry rot presence
Dryrot
Vestrat
establishment rate
Proportion of vine cuttings established well that producing shoots
Vine cutting establishment rate
Plant
WSTPL
Weight of small size yam per plant
Weight
Small size tuber weight per plant
Small tuber
Fruits harvested number
Fruit per cross
FrtHvstN
Number
Number of harvested fruits per cross after physiological maturity
Measure the width of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg )from net plot at wider portion of the tuber using calliper or measuring tape and record the average
Width of medium size tubers-Computation
Date end of seed germination-Estimation
Record date the last seed germination observed per cross or family
Big size yam yield no adjusted- Computation
Calculated as big size yam tuber weight per plot divided by size of effective harvest plot mutiplied by 10
Chewingness scale 0-100
End of flowering time or when a plant does not produce new flower in a plot
TIMEF
Time to end of flowering
end of flowering time
Plant
Medium size yam fresh weight per plant-computation
Compute by dividing fresh weight measurement of medium size tubers taken to the number of harvested plants in a net plot
kg/plot
Internode length - computation
Measure the length of internode at 1m height on five (5) plants and record the average
Medium size tubers fresh weight per plot -measurement
Record the weight of medium size ( ? 500 gm and <1 kg) tubers in a net plot
Taste of pounded yam - Estimation
Score taste of pounded yam using sensory test panalist
Refers to the presence of small black points on the surface of product
Boiled yam surface black points presence
Boiled root surface
BoilYamBlackspo
Black points presence
number of tubers
Calculated as weight of big size tubers per plot divided by total number of big size tubers per plot
Big yam tuber average weight-computation
llfhair
Hairiness of leaf surface
hairiness
Leaf hairiness
Leaf
STW
Weight
Small tuber
Weight of small size tubers ( <0.5kg ) in a net plot or unit area
Small size tubers weight per plot
Fibrousness scale 0-100
Springiness of pounded yam-Estimation
Score the distance to which the deformed material can be or degree of stretchabiliy pounded yam in intesity scale
Small size tubers fresh weight per plot- measurement
Record the weight of small size ( < 500 gm) tubers in a net plot
1-5 scale
arombldyam
The sense of smell or odor of boiled yam that reaches the nose before eating or the boiled yam reaches the mouth
aroma
Boiled yam aroma
Boiled yam
The surface color of the yam tuber flesh
Tuber flesh color
Tuber flesh
color
Number of internodes to first branching
NINFB
number
Number of internodes to first branchs on a plant
Stem internode
appearance
apppoundedyam
Pounded yam appearance
The optical appearance of pouned yam related with surface glossy or dullness and light scattering power of pounded yam structure
Pounded yam
Weight
Average weigth of big size tuber
Big tuber
AWBT
Average weight of big size tubers in kg
Compute the proportion dry rot tubers from the total number of harvested tubers per effective plot
Tuber dry rot incidence - Computation
50% fruit set time-Estimation
Record the date fruit set in 50% of plants in a plot
number of fruit
Virus severity
Plant
VirusSev
Grade of reaction of the plant to the viruses infection, varying from mottle, mosaics until total leaves deformation
Virus severity
number
Set seed per Fruit
Seeds set per fruit
SdSet
Number of seeds developed per fruit after hand flowers pollination
Tuber dry rot severity - Estimation
Score the severity of dry rot in harvested tubers
0-1 binary scale
shape
Leaf apex
Leaf apex shape
Lfapx
Leaf apex shape
Dry rot caused by nematodes (Scutellonema bradys and Practylenchus spp.) in tubers at harvest
Dryrot
Dry rot incidence
Tuber
Yam tuber dry rot incidence
Feel the taste of boiled yam in mouth and make sensory score using scale how pleasing to the taste
Taste of boiled yam-Estimation
Compute the proportion of plants with leaf beetle damage from the total number of plants in the effective plots on leaf beetle damange record taken twice(at two and five months after planting date)
Leaf beetle incidence - Computation
Compute the proportion tubers showing root knot nematode symptoms from the total number of harvested tubers in effective plot
Root knot nematode incidence - Computation
number
Quantity of Female spikes where flowers has been pollinated using male flower from a monoecious or dioecious parent
Pollinated spikes number
Inflorescence
NPollSpk
Fruit set number - Computation
Compute the fruit set number as proportion of pollinated flowers developing or setting a fruit and expressed in %
Stickiness of pounded yam - Estimation
Score the sticknes or adhesiveness of pounded yam to consumern fingur using sensory test panelist
1-7 scale
TNTPL
Number
Total tubers per plant
Number of tubers harvested per plant
Tuber
Take count of dry rot tubers per plot at harvest
Dry rot tuber number-counting
The sense of smell or odor of pounded yam that reaches the nose before eating or the pounded yam reaches the mouth
Pouned yam
Pounded yam aroma
arompoundedyam
aroma
variable_of
Boiled root
Hardness of cutting or breaking
BoilYamHdHard
Force required to cut/break with fork
Boiled yam hardness
Measure the length of at most five medium size tubers (?500 gm and <1kg ) from base to tip in a net plot at harvest and record the average
Length of medium size tubers-Computation
Record date the first seed germination observed per cross or family
Time of first seed germination-Estimation
Flower
sex
Predominat plant or flower sex
Plant sex
Sex
Fruits/cross
50% flowering time - Computation
Compute the number of days required from 50% of sprouts in plot emerged to 50% of plants in a plot are having at least one flower/inflorescence
Record leaf apex shape of mature plants in a plot
Leaf apex shape-Estimation
Position of root appearance on tubers-Estimation
Record position of appearance of roots at surface to tubers
scale_of
Tuber size - Estimation
Determination of predominant size of the tuber in the entire family
number of bulbils