CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoCol_E_1to6
GTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
semi horizontal
3
flint
6
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_1to5
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
conical
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EShape_E_1to3
CIMMYT
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_pct
TslBW_DW_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslSiz_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LSucrose_M_mgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g100grn
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
green
1
CIMMYT
LLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g1000grn
1000KW
TGW
TKW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to5
short
2
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
PHTslB_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GGlucose_M_ugmg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
flint
1
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GVitA_M_µgg
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Shell_Cmp_ratio
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
EW_DW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
TSCSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to5
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
YLChl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
5
very high level of blasting
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
PAsp_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EH_M_cm
4
drooping
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
conical
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
PVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EPo_E_1to3
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_text
EndoLys_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
normal
EWormDmg_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
semi erect
2
CRustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
200KW
GW_DW_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very low infection
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GIron_M_ppm
LRollSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
7
61-70% dead leave area
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
5
pointed
MCob_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
EndoTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_kgha
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProt_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
conical-cylindrical
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
colorless
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GThk_M_mm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GY_RelChk_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_mm
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
pop
7
TSCSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PUnif_E_1to3
CIMMYT
GY_DW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white cap
6
BCLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
small
3
2
green
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GMoi_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LodgInc_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_pct
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
DMSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WeevN_Ct_weevil
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GOil_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PH_M_cm
GRN_Ct_rowear
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkLng_M_cm
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
slightly (20%) infested
2
CSCMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
100%
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
5
highly (>80%) damaged
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
very short
1
AWormDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
LSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
high ear position
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LAsh_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProline_M_mgg
medium
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
Silk_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SD
AntAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
TslBN_Ct_branch
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
11-20% dead leaf area
2
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_FW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very compact
1
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_umolg
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_kgPlot
5
41-50% dead leave area
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
semi-dent
4
GABA_M_pgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
intermediate grain hardness
3
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTrp_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
EW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
excellent germination (90-100%)
1
GWid_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
very weak
5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_DT_day
DTS
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
5
dent
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
100KW
GW_DW_g100grn
5
very poor
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
BCLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
GY_FW_lbPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
OA_M_Mpa
1
shrunken
Mat_DT_day
DTM
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
large
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OP_M_Mpa
PericCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Cmp_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HskCov_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LProline_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RSucrose_M_ngug
1
colorless
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GNC_M_pct
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EPo_Cmp_ratio
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
brown
4
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
primary
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTex_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
4
purple
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
TslDen_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Cmp_Cday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MaturityGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
Ant_Cmp_Cday
AnthesisGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWid_M_mm
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LWid_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
2
semi-flint
bronze
2
DMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
EDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
red
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_pct
2
weak
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLng_M_mm
5
brown
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRArr_E_1to4
2
secondary
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EN_Cmp_earplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
orange
5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to9
moderately (50% ) infested
3
6
51-60% dead leave area
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
7
strong
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Shell_Cmp_pct
AflavERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
dark purple
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EN_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LGBDmg_E_1to5
GW_Adj_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
dense
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
2
intermediate
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
5
MAIZE ontology
1
clean, no damage
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Rank_number
2
low to moderate level of blasting
1
lax
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
2
good
CIMMYT
RootCapac_M_uF
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSen_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTELSen
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_pct
1
no infestation
GMoi_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
1
0
no dead leaf area
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi open
3
attribute
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTA
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StdGerm_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GUpSSh_E_1to6
soft and opaque grains
5
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
sparse
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHFL_M_cm
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PRI_M_idx
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LCol_E_1to5
SCond_M_mmolm2s
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
mixed
3
GY_DW_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
4
weak to medium
8
sweet
very vigorous
1
4
purple
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GCol_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
EturcSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
severe infection
9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
BCLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
good germination (70-89%)
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
severly infested
5
1
regular
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RustSev_E_pct
2
cream
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
GTW_M_lbbsh
Ant_Date_ymd
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AD
4
yellow
2
slightly (20%) damaged
weak
3
round
4
3
low infection
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
5
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
intermediate
3
red
3
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
moderate to high level of blasting
6
medium to high infection
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
4
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
2
indented
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslOpen_E_1to5
4
variegated
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
moderately (50% ) damaged
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g1000grn
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GOil_M_pct
TslTyp_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_M_pct
red
3
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
3
intermediate
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1-10% dead leaf area
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
7
mottled
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RGlucose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
irregular
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StemCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
intermediate germination (30-69%)
3
2
present
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_E_pct
MLNSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MD
Mat_Date_ymd
very weak to weak
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
NDVI_M_idx
4
open
postrate
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g200grn
low ear position
1
71-80% dead leave area
8
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
5
2
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
purple
3
81-90% dead leave area
9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_M_gear
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
pale yellow
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
2
cylindrical-conical
level
3
HSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
grayyish white
2
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
FgramERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
5
Significantly (70%) infested
4
6
orange
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_1to9
1
floury
HSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
no infection
1
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_pct
weak
4
dark green
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_pct
red
9
5
brown
5
other
2
95%
no blasting
1
FusERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WeevInc_E_1to5
2
ear around mid-plant
dent
3
very strong
9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
strongly pointed
6
4
poor
2
sun red
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
4
spiral
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
reddish
4
medium
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_1to5
4
long
3
cylindrical
acronym
RustSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngVig_E_1to5
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white cap
8
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
GProt_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
very poor germination (0-10%)
5
8
strong to very strong
1
white
dense
3
ASI_Cmp_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very long
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
2
compact
6
medium to strong
1
hard and transparent grains
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
1
light green
moderate level of blasting
3
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
yellow
3
medium
strong
4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDia_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_1to5
3
desirable
3
straight
medium infection
5
other
5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to9
4
poor germination (11-29%)
high infection
7
absent
0
5
medium
1
white
2
vigorous
1
absent or very weak
excellent
1
not severely rolled leaves
4
rounded
4
entity
2
light purple
very high infection
8
9
Opaque 2/QPM
1
cylindrical
1
unrolled
2
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
4
low to medium infection
21-30% dead leaf area
3
erect
1
4
31-40% dead leaf area
turgid leaves
2
1
white
1
present
normal
3
4
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
very strong
5
absent
1
absent
1
GOil
Oil content
Whole-grain oil content.
Grain oil content
Grain
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
t/ha
PAsp
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
aspect
Plant aspect
Plant
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
%
Plant
tillering
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
Tillering
Tassel branching type
branching type
TslTyp
Tassel
Branching type of tassel.
MSVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
Tassel glumes
TslGlCol
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Plant
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
CharRInc
Charcoal rot incidence
number
Ear number.
EN
Ear
Ear number
Diatraea damage
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Plant
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
Plant
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus incidence
1-3 Ear shape scale
ShtPub - Estimation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
CCI
CT - Measurement
Standard method for canopy temperature.
NIRS method for oil content
NIRS GOil - Measurement
GTyp
Grain type
type
Grain
Type of grain.
Proline - Measurement
Standard method for proline content.
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
GIron - Measurement
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EturcSev - Estimation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
GLSSev - Estimation
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
RGlucose
Root
Glucose content
Root glucose content
Glucose content in the root.
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Leaf stomatal conductance
Leaf
Stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
SCond
Standard method for tassel branches number.
TslBN - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSmutInc - Counting
Leaf
Sen
senescence
Senescence
Leaf senescence.
1-5 disease scoring scale
plant/plot
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SmaySev - Estimation
Leaf
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight severity
EturcSev
Standard method for ear shape
EShape - Estimation
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHTslB - Measurement
WeevN
Grain
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
Maize weevil number
Maize weevil number in Grain
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Aflatox
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Aflatoxin content
Grain
Aflatoxin content
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
RustSev - Estimation
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
TRustSev
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust severity
Leaf
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
PHvst - Counting
Corn stunt incidence
Plant
CSCInc
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
Corn stunt incidence
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
ug/g
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
MLNSev
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Plant
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Ear
EGrwR
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
growth rate
Ear growth rate
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain
Ash content
Whole-grain ash content.
GAsh
Grain ash content
LodgInc - Estimation
Scored for severity of lodging.
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
GTrp - Measurement
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MLNSev - Estimation
ear/plot
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
ABA - Measurement
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
LRollSev
Leaf
rolling severity
Leaf rolling severity
PLSSev
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Leaf
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
PH
height
Plant height
Plant
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
Grain length.
Grain
GLng
length
Grain length
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSmutInc - Computation
Tassel opening
Tassel
Tassel angle.
TslOpen
opening
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
BHskCovInc - Computation
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AntAnCol - Estimation
StrigaPN - Counting
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
Common smut severity
Common smut severity
Ear
CSmutSev
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
ear/plant
Philippine downy mildew incidence
PDMInc
Plant
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LateWiltInc - Counting
PERSev
Ear
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity.
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
Striga plant number
Striga
Plant number
StrigaPN
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Adjusted GY - Computation
Standard method for tassel opening
TslOpen - Estimation
Plant
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
PHTslB
Standard method for leaf color.
LCol - Estimation
CobGlCol
Color of the cob glumes.
Cob glumes color
Cob glumes
color
1-9 disease scoring scale
umol/g
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
GTyp - Estimation
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
GYRank - Computation
Plants harvested
PHvst
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
Plant
havested number
Ear rot incidence.
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence
Ear
ERInc
branch
MRDVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for plant uniformity
PUnif - Estimation
PERSev - Estimation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
vigor
Plant
PVig
Plant vigor.
Plant vigor
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
ERInc - Counting
Ear bad husk cover incidence
Ear
BHskCovInc
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
bad husk cover incidence
GWid - Measurement
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
day
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
EDia
Ear
diameter
Ear diameter
1-5 Leaf color scale
Tassel exertion
Tassel
TslExer
exertion
Tassel exertion.
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
Ear leaf weight
Ear leaf
weight
ELW
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Leaf
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
1-11 Grain type scale
1-2 absent-present scale
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PDMInc - Computation
ppm
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
ALBInc
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Plant
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Days to anthesis - Computation
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Plant
MSVSev
Plant
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
EWormDmg
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
Earworm damage
Ear
Earworm damage
Osmotic adjustment
Plant
OA
osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
Plant
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
FmonSRInc
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
GABA
Grain
Abscisic acid content
Grain abscisic acid content
g/1000grain
Proline content in the root.
Root
Root proline content
Proline content
RProl
PAsp - Estimation
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MRCVInc - Computation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BmaySev - Estimation
erectness
Insertion angle of the leaves.
LErect
Leaf erectness
Leaf
mg/g
Grain number.
GN
Grain
number
Grain number
EndoTrp
Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Endosperm
lb/bsh
GW FW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
AphDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
lodging incidence
Lodging incidence
Plant
LodgInc
Observation of lodging severity.
Plant
Head smut severity
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
Zinc content
Grain
Whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc
Grain zinc content
Grain color
Grain
GCol
Color of the grain.
color
1-5 damage scoring scale
DMJInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Shelling ratio
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Ear
Shell
Ear shelling ratio
Grain width.
Grain width
GWid
width
Grain
Common smut incidence
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
Plant
CSmutInc
Common smut incidence
Text
GLSSev
Gray leaf spot severity
Leaf
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
EHvst - Counting
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
GLys - Measurement
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
SilkCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
Silk
Silk
SilkLng
Silk length.
Silk length
length
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GThk - Measurement
PUnif
Plant
Uniformity of plants.
uniformity
Plant uniformity
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
Root
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
RABA
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Tar spot complex severity
Leaf
Tar spot complex severity
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
TSCSev
Standard method for silk growth rate.
SilkGrwR - Computation
1-9 Grain color scale
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
grain/plant
CT
Plant
canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
Canopy temperature
AleuCol
color
Aleurone
Color of the aleurone.
Aleurone color
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TslSiz
Tassel
Tassel size
Tassel size.
size
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LateWiltInc - Computation
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
GUpSSh
Grain upper surface shape
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
Grain
upper surface shape
Plant
Sorghum downy mildew severity
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Ear
Ear leaf (blade) length.
Ear leaf length
Ear leaf
length
ELLng
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonSRSev - Estimation
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Rust severity
RustSev
Leaf
Rust severity
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
GNC - Measurement
DTS - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
HSmutInc - Computation
FmonERSev
Ear
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
StemCol
Stem
Stem color
color
Color of the stem.
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
¡C day
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Plant
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
Plant
Chilo damage
ChiloDmg
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
Chilo damage
Plant
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
Army worm damage
AWormDmg
Army worm damage
EWormInc - Computation
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusERSev - Estimation
1-5 Aleurone color scale
1-5 Stem color scale
Leaf
Common rust severity
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
CRustSev
Common rust severity
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
Water index
WI
water index
Plant
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Grain
Lysine content
Grain Lysine content
Whole-grain Lysine content.
Grain
GLys
density
Density of spikelets.
Tassel density
TslDen
Tassel
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Plant
FmonSRSev
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
Plant
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
PsacchInc
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Plant
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
LGBDmg - Estimation
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Diabrotica damage
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
DiabroticaDmg
Plant
Diabrotica damage
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHFL - Measurement
¡C
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
NDVI
Plant
normalized difference vegetation index
Normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
Plant
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
tiller/plant
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
EDmg - Estimation
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Chlorophyll content
ELChl
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
Ear leaf
PDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EPo - Computation
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
Chlorophyll content
Young leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
YLChl
Young leaf
ug/mg
Plant
Ear leaf senescence time.
ELSen
Ear leaf senescence time
ear leaf senescence time
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
SCMVInc
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
Plant
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CTMInc - Counting
index
0-10 Senescence scale
color
EndoCol
Endosperm color
Color of the endosperm.
Endosperm
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PytSRInc - Counting
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
Shell - Computation
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
ELng
Ear
length
Ear length
Ear length.
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Leaf
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
BCLSSev
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Maturity date - Estimation
Ear damage
EDmg
Ear
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Ear damage
cm
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
stem lodging incidence
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
Stem lodging incidence
Plant
SLodgInc
StenSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
Plant
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
1-3 Ear position scale
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
AflavERSev
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Ear
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRCVInc - Counting
Grain weight
Grain weight of mature kernels.
weight
GW
Grain
Plant
root lodging incidence
Root lodging incidence
RLodgInc
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
anthesis time
Plant
Anthesis time.
Anthesis time
Ant
GCol - Estimation
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
Cob
Cob sucrose content
Sucrose content in the cob
Sucrose content
CSucrose
Proline content in the grain.
Grain proline content
Grain
Proline content
GProline
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSev - Estimation
AleuCol - Estimation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity
AspERSev
Ear
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
LateWiltInc
Plant
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt incidence
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW DW - Measurement
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for tassel blasting.
TslBlastSev - Estimation
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
StemCol - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
EShape
Ear shape
Ear
Ear shape
shape
EndoProt - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
1-3 Tassel density scale
Number of plants per unit area.
stand
Plant
PStand
Plant stand
yyyymmdd
mm
Color of the leaf.
Leaf
Leaf color
color
LCol
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
LLng
Leaf
Leaf length
Leaf length.
length
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
GUpSSh - Estimation
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
Plant
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
StrigaDmg
Striga damage
Striga damage
Plant
Plant
Maturity time
Maturity time.
Mat
maturity time
Color of the pericarp.
PericCol
Pericarp
Pericarp color
color
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
StBorDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
FgramSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain row arrangement
GRArr
grain row arrangement
Ear grain rows arrangement.
Ear
Tillering - Counting
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
CTMInc
Plant
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
TslSiz - Estimation
ng/µg
Grain thickness
thickness
Thickness of the grain.
Grain
GThk
Grain
GIron
Iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
Grain iron content
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
Plant
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
texture
Grain
GTex
Grain texture
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CRustSev - Estimation
Endosperm hardness
Endosperm hardness.
Endosperm
hardness
EndoHard
GRArr - Estimation
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
CSCInc - Counting
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Counting
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
Plant
Aphid damage
Aphid damage
AphDmg
Tassel blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
Tassel
TslBlastSev
blasting severity
LAsh- Measurement
Standard method for leaves ash content
EndoLys
Endosperm
Lysine content
Endosperm Lysine content
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
EH - Measurement
FmonSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
GAsh - Measurement
MSTVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
1-5 Grain texture scale
grain row number
Grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
Ear
GRN
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Rank number
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
capacitance
Root
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
Root capacitance
RootCapac
GMoi
Grain moisture.
Grain
Grain moisture
moisture content
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
ng/g
Earworm incidence
EWormInc
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
Ear
Earworm incidence
SLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
DMJInc
Plant
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
Ear height
EH
Plant
height to insertion of uppermost ear
SilkGrwR
Silk growth rate
Silk
growth rate
Growth rate of silk.
RLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
uF
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SdlngVig
Seedling vigor
Seedling vigor.
vigor
Seedling
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anther
AntCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
LLng - Measurement
Grain protein content
GProt
Protein content
Grain
Whole-grain protein content.
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity
Ear
Fusarium ear rot severity.
FusERSev
Glucose - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
g/200grain
WeevInc - Estimation
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FusSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
OP
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
Osmotic potential
Plant
osmotic potential
weight loss by maize weevil
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
GWLostWeev
Grain
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
EAsp - Estimation
g/plot
Mpa
Ear
Ear weight
weight
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
EW
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CharRInc - Counting
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSmutSev - Estimation
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Counting
Aflatox - Measurement
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
mmol /m2/s
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
Sheath pubescence
Sheath
ShtPub
pubescence
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
GW Adjusted - Computation
variable_of
Plant
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
Multiple cob incidence
multiple cob incidence
MCob
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
weevil
DMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ShellCobW
weight or yield
Shelled cob weight
Shelled cob
Weight of shelled cob.
0-1 absent-present scale
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
Leaf
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
BLSBSev
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
EndoHard - Estimation
RLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Standard method for ear leaf length.
ELLng - Measurement
Grain glucose content
GGlucose
Glucose content
Glucose content in the grain.
Grain
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
aspect
EAsp
Ear
Ear aspect
kg/plot
BusseolaDmg
Busseola damage
Busseola damage
Plant
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
TslAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence
Plant
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMSInc - Computation
Endosperm
Protein content in grain endosperm.
EndoProt
Endosperm protein content
Protein content
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Anthesis date - Estimation
1-5 Vigor scale
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ALBInc - Computation
Nitrogen content
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Grain Nitrogen content
GNC
Grain
PpolySev
Leaf
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Polysora rust severity
1-5 Pericarp color scale
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Plant
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
EDia - Measurement
EN - Counting
Count the number of ears.
scale_of
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
TslGlBCol
Tassel glumes base
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Leaf width.
width
Leaf width
Leaf
LWid
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
MCob - Counting
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
OA - Measurement
Plant
SdlngDisInc
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence.
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
ASI - Computation
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
Silking time.
Silking time
Plant
silking time
Silk
1-5 rating scale
RGY - Computation
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
Plant
HSmutInc
Head smut incidence
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Head smut incidence
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SRInc - Counting
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
WeevN - Counting
Tassel branch number
number
TslBN
Number of branches on tassel.
Tassel branch
CLSSev
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Leaf
Curvularia leaf spot severity
GY
Grain
Grain yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
yield
FungDis
Fungal disease presence
Fungal disease presence
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Plant
pg/g
PsacchInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
GLng - Measurement
Relative to check - Computation
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
row/ear
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSTVInc - Counting
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
GN - Computation
Standard method for grain number.
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
kg/ha
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Leaf
Ash content
Leaf ash content
LAsh
Ash content in maize leaves.
GProt - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
Observe color of grains.
GCol - Estimation
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc - Measurement
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Anthocyanin coloration
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
CobGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Cob glumes
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FmonSRInc - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
FW GY - Measurement
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
Plant
CSSSev
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
PStand - Counting
Count total number of plants per plot.
ppb
MRFVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
FgramERSev
Ear
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
LRollSev - Estimation
Ear position ratio
anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval.
ASI
Plant
Anthesis silking interval
g/100grain
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Leaf
Chl
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
GStarch
Starch content
Grain
Grain starch content
Whole-grain starch content.
1-3 Cob color scale
Root
Root sucrose content
RSucrose
Sucrose content in the root.
Sucrose content
Tassel branch weight
Weight of tassel branches.
weight
TslBW
Tassel branch
Sucrose content
Sucrose content in the leaf
Leaf sucrose content
LSucrose
Leaf
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
Grain
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA
ProvitaminA content
Grain provitaminA content
PVig - Estimation
Standard method for plant vigor
lb/plot
SRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Grain Tryptophan content
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
GTrp
Grain
Tryptophan content
UpESh - Estimation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
EWormInc - Counting
Leaf
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
LABA
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
Plant
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot incidence
SRInc
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
EWid
Ear width
Ear width.
Ear
width
Silking date - Estimation
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Standard method for root capitance.
RootCapac - Measurement
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
Plant
MRCVInc
Standard method for water index.
WI - Measurement
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
Grain test weight
GTW
test weight
Grain
Standard method for tassel exertion
TslExer - Estimation
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BLSBSev - Estimation
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
BSDMInc
Plant
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Ear position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
Ear
EPo
position
Standard method for standard germination
StdGerm - Estimation
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot incidence
PytSRInc
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
Plant
1-4 Ear shape scale
GMoi - Computation
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SteWiltInc - Computation
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
DW GY - Computation
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Plant
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BSDMInc - Counting
1-3 density scale
Stewarts wilt incidence
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Plant
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Leaf
Standard germination.
Standard germination
Grain
StdGerm
Standard germination
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel
TslCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
TSCSev - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSSev - Estimation
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
YLChl - Measurement
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex - Estimation
PpolySev - Estimation
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GOil - Measurement
Standard method for oil content
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Plant
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
NIRS method for leaves ash content
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
Busseola larvae incidence.
Busseola damage incidence
Plant
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Ear husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
Ear
HskCov
husk cover
g
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Computation
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content in the grain
Sucrose content
GSucrose
Grain
CobGlCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
1-3 size scale
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
BwSpotSev
Brown spot severity
Leaf
Brown spot severity
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
HskCov - Estimation
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
Number of ears harvested.
Ear
EHvst
Ear harvested number
harvested number
method_of
g/plant/day
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
LGBDmg
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
Grain
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer damage
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
EarW Field weight - Measurement
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
AstriInc - Computation
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSCInc - Computation
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
Plant
CSCMSev
Maize bushy stunt severity
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMJInc - Counting
Compute number of ears using the formula.
EN - Computation
shape
UpESh
Uppermost ear
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
Uppermost ear shape
PRI
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
photochemical radiation index
Photochemical radiation index
Plant
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
GStarch - Measurement
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
Plant
FusSRInc
cm/day
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PH - Measurement
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle incidence
Plant
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
AstriInc
1-5 Tassel opening scale
1-5 Standard germination scale
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
SCond - Measurement
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
EWormDmg - Measurement
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Chl - Measurement
LProline
Proline content
Leaf
Leaf proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
EGrwR - Computation
Standard method for ear growth rate.
Ear shelling ratio
1-5 Tassel exertion scale