CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_pct
11-20% dead leaf area
2
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi open
3
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
4
weak
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
regular
1
CIMMYT
RGlucose_M_ngug
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1-10% dead leaf area
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OP_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
41-50% dead leave area
5
desirable
3
2
Middle rank
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OA_M_Mpa
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GrMark_CompRank_Bl3
low ear position
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
GrStor_CompRank_Bl3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTex_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GThk_M_mm
CIMMYT
GWid_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
NDVI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PericCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GY_DW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
Middle rank
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to5
MSVSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Highest rank
1
short
2
71-80% dead leave area
8
red
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to5
not severely rolled leaves
4
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GVitA_M_µgg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
100KW
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RelChk_pct
Ant_Cmp_Cday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AnthesisGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_gPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
Ant_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
AD
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_gPlot
2
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
TslTyp_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
TslOpen_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
white
1
MSVSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
1
shrunken
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBN_Ct_branch
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white cap
6
grayyish white
2
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
dent
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
BwSpotSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
orange
6
SD
Silk_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
LodgInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDia_M_cm
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi erect
2
5
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to5
GMoi_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AWormDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LCol_E_1to5
erect
1
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
high ear position
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_pct
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
pop
7
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to9
TSCSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTM
Mat_DT_day
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
small
GSucrose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
yellow
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
lax
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TKW
TGW
GW_DW_g1000grn
1000KW
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
very short
1
EturcSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_Cmp_pct
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ASI_Cmp_day
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PVig_E_1to5
LAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium to high infection
6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to5
BHskCovInc_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StemCol_E_1to5
PHFL_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g100grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
sparse
1
vigorous
2
white cap
8
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to9
1
excellent germination (90-100%)
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EShape_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_pct
mixed
3
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dent
3
PERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g1000grn
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GNC_M_pct
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
good
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_kgPlot
EPo_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSucrose_M_umolg
4
variegated
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_mm
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
5
orange
1
white
DMSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgha
GY_Adj_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
PstTol_CompRank_Bl3
AbStr_CompRank_Bl3
brown
4
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
very high level of blasting
4
spiral
dark purple
3
4
poor germination (11-29%)
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
TRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRArr_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
floury
1
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LProline_M_ugg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
PUnif_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to5
3
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELLng_M_cm
GY_Rank_number
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
5
CIMMYT
GRN_Ct_rowear
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoCol_E_1to6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Date_ymd
MD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_NIRS_pct
CompLoc_CompRank_Bl3
GTrp_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OvPerf_CompRank_Bl3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
CIMMYT
MaturityGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Cmp_Cday
2
green
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
GmRt_CompRank_Bl3
Gcol_CompRank_Bl3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
intermediate
3
1
primary
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
CSCMSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
5
purple
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
DTELSen
ELSen_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
clean, no damage
3
Lowest rank
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
5
brown
poor
4
CIMMYT
SdlngVig_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
slightly (20%) infested
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FgramERSev_E_1to9
3
normal
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
4
Significantly (70%) infested
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
YLChl_M_CCI
2
secondary
Highest rank
1
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_pct
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
normal
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_DT_day
DTA
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
EW_M_gear
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProline_M_mgg
TslBW_DW_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Lowest rank
3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_ugmg
2
irregular
purple
4
1
no infestation
GY_FW_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
100%
1
CobNb_CompRank_Bl3
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
AntAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
postrate
5
CIMMYT
CSmutSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GABA_M_ugg
RootCapac_M_uF
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StdGerm_E_1to5
PpolySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LGBDmg_E_1to5
2
weak
CIMMYT
EndoTrp_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
conical-cylindrical
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_NIRS_pct
9
very strong
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
EW_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
3
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
hard and transparent grains
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
LRollSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GOil_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
conical
3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GUpSSh_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dense
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
5
brown
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_pct
2
slightly (20%) damaged
3
moderately (50% ) damaged
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
1
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
colorless
1
sun red
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g200grn
200KW
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLng_CompRank_Bl3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
5
very poor germination (0-10%)
CIMMYT
SmaySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium infection
5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LWid_M_cm
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
very strong
5
CSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
flint
1
intermediate
2
CIMMYT
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_ratio
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWid_M_mm
very high infection
8
5
very poor
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
GY_CompRank_Bl3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_pct
cylindrical-conical
2
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTW_M_lbbsh
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
soft and opaque grains
Chl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslSiz_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLng_M_mm
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PAsp_E_1to5
5
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
4
reddish
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTrp_M_pct
3
medium
6
medium to strong
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
2
good germination (70-89%)
moderate to high level of blasting
4
2
very low infection
PH_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
purple
4
Silk_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTS
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
3
level
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
EPo_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GIron_M_ppm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
3
weak
6
flint
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
GY_FW_lbPlot
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
cylindrical
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
4
strong
3
medium
EDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
highly (>80%) damaged
5
present
1
9
Opaque 2/QPM
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_1to9
3
straight
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_pct
2
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
4
long
1
large
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
1
no blasting
1
conical
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslDen_E_1to3
medium
2
MLNSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
HskCov_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GrTast_CompRank_Bl3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Cmp_earplnt
7
mottled
light purple
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AWornDmg_CompRank_Bl3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
drooping
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
MatT_CompRank_BL3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
1
white
green
1
21-30% dead leaf area
3
MAIZE ontology
SCond_M_mmolm2s
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RABA_M_ngg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
bronze
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to5
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
severly infested
5
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to5
8
strong to very strong
0
absent
2
turgid leaves
1
absent
EH_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdSizUse_compRank_Bl3
very weak to weak
2
ear around mid-plant
2
strong
7
9
red
dense
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
4
3
red
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to5
unrolled
1
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
9
81-90% dead leave area
3
primary-secondary-tertiary
61-70% dead leave area
7
WeevInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DsTol_CompRank_Bl3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RSucrose_M_ngug
medium
5
intermediate grain hardness
3
other
5
1
colorless
entity
Sen_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
1
absent
1
excellent
CIMMYT
WeevN_Ct_weevil
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
absent or very weak
1
moderate level of blasting
3
GY_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
intermediate
pale yellow
3
severe infection
9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslExer_E_1to5
3
red
very compact
1
3
semi horizontal
weak to medium
4
6
strongly pointed
51-60% dead leave area
6
31-40% dead leaf area
4
4
low to medium infection
0
no dead leaf area
4
open
GOil_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
round
4
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
no infection
light green
1
2
low to moderate level of blasting
2
indented
other
5
moderately (50% ) infested
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_text
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
8
sweet
4
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
intermediate germination (30-69%)
3
dark green
3
cream
2
rounded
4
cylindrical
1
acronym
5
very long
high infection
7
compact
2
95%
2
attribute
yellow
4
very vigorous
1
pointed
5
low infection
3
2
present
semi-flint
2
semi-dent
4
5
very weak
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
SdlngDisInc
Plant
Ant
Anthesis time
anthesis time
Plant
Anthesis time.
FgramERSev
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
Ear
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
FmonSRInc
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
Plant
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
EShape
Ear
shape
Ear shape
Ear shape
marketability
Grain
Grain marketability
Grain marketability refers to the commercial viability or attractiveness of a particular type of grain for sale in the agricultural market.
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
Tryptophan content
EndoTrp
Endosperm
StBorDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain sucrose content
Grain
Sucrose content
GSucrose
Sucrose content in the grain
Standard method for canopy temperature.
CT - Measurement
CSmutInc
Common smut incidence
Common smut incidence
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
Plant
Tassel size.
size
TslSiz
Tassel
Tassel size
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
Sorghum downy mildew severity
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Plant
Plant
aspect
Plant aspect
PAsp
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BmaySev - Estimation
FW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
plant/plot
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW DW - Measurement
grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
GRN
Grain row number
Ear
silking time
Plant
Silk
Silking time.
Silking time
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
CSSSev - Estimation
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
Comparative ranking by users method
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
Rust severity
Leaf
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
RustSev
Rust severity
LCol
color
Color of the leaf.
Leaf
Leaf color
CSCMSev
Maize bushy stunt severity
Plant
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
Maize bushy stunt severity
LRollSev - Estimation
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
Grain zinc content
Grain
Zinc content
GZinc
Whole-grain zinc content.
LProline
Proline content
Leaf proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
Leaf
1-2 absent-present scale
TslCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusERSev - Estimation
StdGerm
Standard germination
Standard germination
Grain
Standard germination.
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Plant
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
PytSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity.
PERSev
Penicillium ear rot severity
Ear
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Sucrose content
Leaf sucrose content
Leaf
LSucrose
Sucrose content in the leaf
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
YLChl
Chlorophyll content
Young leaf
Young leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
1-5 disease scoring scale
Standard method for tassel opening
TslOpen - Estimation
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
Ear leaf senescence time
ear leaf senescence time
Plant
Ear leaf senescence time.
ELSen
Color of the stem.
Stem color
color
StemCol
Stem
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
BSDMInc
Plant
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Root
RABA
Abscisic acid content
ELLng - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf length.
shape
Uppermost ear
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
UpESh
Uppermost ear shape
CRustSev
Leaf
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
Common rust severity
Common rust severity
SRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel branch number
Tassel branch
TslBN
Number of branches on tassel.
number
GRArr - Estimation
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
grain row arrangement
Ear
Ear grain rows arrangement.
GRArr
Grain row arrangement
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslAnCol - Estimation
photochemical radiation index
Photochemical radiation index
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
PRI
Plant
BusseolaInc - Counting
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
g/plant/day
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SCMVInc
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Plant
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
ShtPub - Estimation
Endosperm
Endosperm hardness
Endosperm hardness.
hardness
EndoHard
GY
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
yield
Grain
Grain yield
Growth rate of silk.
SilkGrwR
Silk
Silk growth rate
growth rate
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
EWormInc - Counting
%
Glucose content in the grain.
Glucose content
Grain glucose content
Grain
GGlucose
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMJInc - Counting
Endosperm Lysine content
EndoLys
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Lysine content
Endosperm
Standard method for water index.
WI - Measurement
GIron - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Silking date - Estimation
1-3 density scale
ELChl
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Ear leaf
Chlorophyll content
OP
Plant
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
osmotic potential
Osmotic potential
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BCLSSev - Estimation
Root lodging incidence
root lodging incidence
Plant
RLodgInc
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
PHvst - Counting
g/1000grain
1-3 Ear position scale
branch
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CTMInc - Computation
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
ABA - Measurement
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
SRInc
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
Stalk rot incidence
Plant
EDia - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
EndoProt - Measurement
Tassel branch
Weight of tassel branches.
Tassel branch weight
weight
TslBW
NIRS method for leaves ash content
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
CTMInc
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Plant
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
AleuCol - Estimation
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
Plant
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis severity
MLNSev
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
AWormDmg
Plant
Army worm damage
Army worm damage
Leaf
Senescence
senescence
Leaf senescence.
Sen
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
Leaf
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Plant
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
ng/g
Grain
Maize weevil number in Grain
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
Maize weevil number
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
GUpSSh - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
StemCol - Estimation
Plant
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
CSSSev
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
1-5 Leaf color scale
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
GProt - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
BHskCovInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
g/100grain
1-9 disease scoring scale
branching type
Tassel branching type
Tassel
Branching type of tassel.
TslTyp
Grain
Grain test weight
GTW
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
test weight
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
Leaf
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
PLSSev
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Counting
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Ear shelling ratio
Shell
Ear
Ear shelling ratio
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Shelling ratio
PStand - Counting
Count total number of plants per plot.
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
StenSRInc - Computation
mm
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LateWiltInc - Computation
g/plot
weight
Grain
Grain weight
Grain weight of mature kernels.
GW
yyyymmdd
WeevInc - Estimation
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
GLSSev - Estimation
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Standard method for leaves ash content
LAsh- Measurement
CSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Leaf ash content
Ash content
Leaf
LAsh
Ash content in maize leaves.
ppm
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
GCol - Estimation
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
length
Grain length.
GLng
Grain length
Grain
Plant
FusSRInc
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Shell - Computation
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
Gray leaf spot severity
GLSSev
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
Gray leaf spot severity
Leaf
Observation of lodging severity.
LodgInc
Plant
lodging incidence
Lodging incidence
Rank: 3
Seedling vigor.
Seedling vigor
Seedling
vigor
SdlngVig
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlBCol
Tassel glumes base
1-5 rating scale
1-5 Standard germination scale
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Maturity date - Estimation
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
BactSRInc
Plant
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Color of the cob glumes.
CobGlCol
color
Cob glumes color
Cob glumes
Plant
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
FgramSRInc
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
LCol - Estimation
Standard method for leaf color.
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
Tryptophan content
Grain
Grain Tryptophan content
GTrp
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
ELChl - Measurement
Plant
normalized difference vegetation index
NDVI
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
Normalized difference vegetation index
Plant
PHvst
Plants harvested
havested number
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Plant
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
Rank number
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
1-3 Tassel density scale
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Ear
AspERSev
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
GLng - Measurement
CCI
day
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
Black bundle incidence
Plant
Black bundle incidence
AstriInc
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
RLodgInc - Counting
LLng - Measurement
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
Relative to check - Computation
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
1-3 size scale
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
Tassel glumes
Earworm incidence
Ear
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
EWormInc
Earworm incidence
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonSRSev - Estimation
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Plant
Grain width.
Grain
Grain width
GWid
width
TslExer - Estimation
Standard method for tassel exertion
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FmonSRInc - Computation
ELng
Ear length.
length
Ear
Ear length
vigor
Plant
PVig
Plant vigor.
Plant vigor
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
ug/mg
canopy temperature
CT
Plant
Canopy temperature.
Canopy temperature
Grain
Grain iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
GIron
Iron content
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
Java downy mildew incidence
DMJInc
Plant
Java downy mildew incidence
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
Stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
SCond
Leaf
Leaf stomatal conductance
Stewarts wilt incidence
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Plant
Grain
thickness
Grain thickness
GThk
Thickness of the grain.
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
Grain
upper surface shape
Grain upper surface shape
GUpSSh
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
Stem lodging incidence
SLodgInc
stem lodging incidence
Plant
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHFL - Measurement
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
FungDis - Estimation
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Ear
AflavERSev
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BactSRInc - Counting
Tassel
TslBlastSev
blasting severity
Tassel blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
weevil
ng/µg
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
Late wilt incidence
Plant
LateWiltInc
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Late wilt incidence
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MLNSev - Estimation
Standard method for silk length.
SilkLng - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
NIRS GProt- Measurement
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMVSev - Estimation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EturcSev - Estimation
Polysora rust severity
Leaf
PpolySev
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Plant
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of stress on its fitness regardless of the level of abiotic stress (flood, drought, …) applied
Abiotic stress tolerance
Abiotic stress tolerance
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
StrigaDmg - Estimation
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus incidence
Plant
Observe color of grains.
GCol - Estimation
Anthocyanin coloration
Silk
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
SilkCol
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
number
Grain number.
GN
Grain
Grain number
FusSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
GMoi - Computation
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Ear
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
FmonERSev
FgramSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Insertion angle of the leaves.
erectness
LErect
Leaf
Leaf erectness
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSmutSev - Estimation
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
Plant
Chilo damage
ChiloDmg
Chilo damage
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence
Plant
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Plant
Standard method for plant uniformity
PUnif - Estimation
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
Plant
anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval
ASI
Anthesis silking interval.
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GTex
texture
Grain
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Grain texture
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Ear
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
Abscisic acid content
Grain abscisic acid content
GABA
Grain
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CRustSev - Estimation
Pericarp
Color of the pericarp.
Pericarp color
PericCol
color
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
Brown spot severity
BwSpotSev
Leaf
Brown spot severity
LodgInc - Estimation
Scored for severity of lodging.
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
Leaf
LABA
length
Ear leaf length
Ear leaf
ELLng
Ear leaf (blade) length.
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SmaySev - Estimation
ALBInc
Plant
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
GW FW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
EN
Ear number
number
Ear number.
Ear
cm
Ear
husk cover
Ear husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
HskCov
Leaf length
length
LLng
Leaf
Leaf length.
kg/plot
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
BHskCovInc
Ear
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
Ear bad husk cover incidence
bad husk cover incidence
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
water index
Water index
Plant
WI
ppb
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRCVInc - Counting
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
ERInc - Computation
Plant
height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
PHTslB
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
Earworm damage
Earworm damage
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
EWormDmg
Ear
Grain
GProline
Grain proline content
Proline content
Proline content in the grain.
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
Standard method for standard germination
StdGerm - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
Plant
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
Plant
Busseola damage
Busseola damage
BusseolaDmg
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PERSev - Estimation
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
Grain
Large grain borer damage
LGBDmg
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Maturity time
Plant
maturity time
Maturity time.
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
GWLostWeev - Measurement
MRFVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AntAnCol - Estimation
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Grain
Germination rate is calculated by dividing the number of seeds that sprout by the total number of seeds started, and then multiplying that number by 100 to get a percentage.
Germination rate
Germination
Plant
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot severity
CLSSev
Leaf
SLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
DMSSev - Estimation
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
GAsh - Measurement
EarW Field weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
GAsh
Whole-grain ash content.
Grain
Grain ash content
Ash content
Taste of the grain (after cooking? Raw?)
Grain taste
Grain
taste
CSCInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Plant
Disease Tolerance
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of infection on its fitness regardless of the level of disease pathogen multiplication (
Disease tolerance
ELW
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
weight
Ear leaf
Ear leaf weight
Pest tolerance
Pest tolerance
Plant
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of damages on its fitness regardless of the level of pest pathogen multiplication (
Comparison with local
Performance of a maize variety with the local variety
Comparison with local
Plant
Size of seeds matching demand for a use or a market
Grain
size
Seed size for target use/market
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
Leaf
BCLSSev
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Overall performance
Overall performance
Plants ability to thrive, adapt, and produce desired outcomes in a given environment or context.
Plant
Plant
PDMInc
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CharRInc - Counting
GWid - Measurement
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
Plant
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
PsacchInc
1-5 Vigor scale
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
EAsp
aspect
Ear
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
Ear aspect
TSCSev - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Ear
CSmutSev
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
Common smut severity
Common smut severity
Standard method for ear shape
EShape - Estimation
TRustSev
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust severity
Leaf
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
GLys
Grain Lysine content
Lysine content
Grain
Whole-grain Lysine content.
GCol
color
Grain
Grain color
Color of the grain.
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
ASI - Computation
Grain
Grain oil content
Oil content
GOil
Whole-grain oil content.
PAsp - Estimation
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
GW Adjusted - Computation
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
Ear
Ear diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
diameter
EDia
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
RustSev - Estimation
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Plant
Busseola larvae incidence.
Busseola damage incidence
Grain
Protein content
Grain protein content
GProt
Whole-grain protein content.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Leaf
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
BLSBSev
1-5 Tassel opening scale
g
Cob number
Number
Cob
Number of cobs
1-5 Grain texture scale
Cob sucrose content
Cob
Sucrose content
CSucrose
Sucrose content in the cob
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
TslSiz - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Counting
RootCapac - Measurement
Standard method for root capitance.
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
EWormDmg - Measurement
Plant
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Sheath
ShtPub
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
pubescence
Sheath pubescence
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
Root
Root capacitance
RootCapac
capacitance
Head smut incidence
Plant
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Head smut incidence
HSmutInc
Silk length
Silk length.
length
SilkLng
Silk
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
GStarch - Measurement
EPo - Computation
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlCol - Estimation
umol/g
EDmg
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Ear damage
Ear damage
Ear
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
EPo
position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
Ear
Ear position
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ear width
width
Ear
EWid
Ear width.
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
CharRInc
Plant
Charcoal rot incidence
Compute number of ears using the formula.
EN - Computation
StrigaPN
Plant number
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
Striga plant number
Striga
color
Color of the endosperm.
Endosperm color
Endosperm
EndoCol
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Days to anthesis - Computation
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
LWid - Measurement
EGrwR - Computation
Standard method for ear growth rate.
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
WeevN - Counting
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BactSRInc - Computation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Estimation
TSCSev
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
Tar spot complex severity
Leaf
Tar spot complex severity
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVSev - Estimation
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FgramSRInc - Counting
grain/plant
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BSDMInc - Counting
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Adjusted GY - Computation
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
Diatraea damage
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Plant
index
Standard method for oil content
GOil - Measurement
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Cob glumes
CobGlCol
RLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Leaf width
Leaf width.
LWid
width
Leaf
Head smut severity
Plant
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRDVInc - Counting
Diabrotica damage
DiabroticaDmg
Plant
Diabrotica damage
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Aleurone color
color
Color of the aleurone.
AleuCol
Aleurone
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
Plant
MCob
Multiple cob incidence
uF
GThk - Measurement
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GWLostWeev
Grain
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
weight loss by maize weevil
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
OA - Measurement
Leaf
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
ug/g
0-10 Senescence scale
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
OA
Plant
Osmotic adjustment
osmotic adjustment
Standard method for leaf erectness
LErect - Estimation
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
BLSBSev - Estimation
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Grain
GNC
Nitrogen content
Grain Nitrogen content
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Chlorophyll content
Leaf
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Chlorophyll content
Chl
FmonERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
harvested number
EHvst
Number of ears harvested.
Ear harvested number
Ear
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Grain
Root
RGlucose
Root glucose content
Glucose content
Glucose content in the root.
pg/g
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Ear position ratio
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Grain
Aflatoxin content
Aflatox
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
lb/bsh
g/200grain
MCob - Counting
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
0-1 absent-present scale
1-5 damage scoring scale
Leaf
LRollSev
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
rolling severity
Leaf rolling severity
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
Plant
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
EndoHard - Estimation
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity
Plant
MSVSev
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MCob - Computation
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
NIRS method for oil content
NIRS GOil - Measurement
row/ear
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
Comparative ranking by farmers method
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Anthesis date - Estimation
ProvitaminA content
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
Grain provitaminA content
GVitA
Grain
Aphid damage
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
AphDmg
Aphid damage
Plant
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex - Estimation
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
Grain moisture
moisture content
Grain moisture.
GMoi
Grain
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Starch content
Whole-grain starch content.
Grain
Grain starch content
GStarch
mmol /m2/s
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
ShellCobW
Shelled cob
Weight of shelled cob.
Shelled cob weight
weight or yield
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FmonSRInc - Counting
ERInc
Ear rot incidence
Ear
Ear rot incidence.
Ear rot incidence
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
EturcSev
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Leaf
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Proline content
RProl
Root
Proline content in the root.
Root proline content
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 Stem color scale
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
mg/g
Ranking:3
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
YLChl - Measurement
DW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
cm/day
Tassel exertion.
exertion
Tassel exertion
Tassel
TslExer
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSTVInc - Computation
PDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ALBInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Plant
Tillering
Number of tillers per plant.
tillering
Tillering
Standard method for plant vigor
PVig - Estimation
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PsacchInc - Counting
kg/ha
Fusarium ear rot severity.
Ear
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity
Grain type
Grain
Type of grain.
type
GTyp
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AWormDmg - Estimation
GTyp - Estimation
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
GYRank - Computation
Plant
PUnif
uniformity
Uniformity of plants.
Plant uniformity
StrigaPN - Counting
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
1-5 Aleurone color scale
Ear
growth rate
Ear growth rate
EGrwR
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
GTrp - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
Plant
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
StBorDmg
Standard method for grain number.
GN - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SRInc - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA - Measurement
method_of
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Protein content
Endosperm protein content
Endosperm
EndoProt
Protein content in grain endosperm.
Text
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVInc - Counting
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Ear weight
weight
Ear
EW
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
Fungal disease presence
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Fungal disease presence
FungDis
Plant
Ear height
EH
Plant
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
Tillering - Counting
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
FmonSRSev
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Plant
Proline - Measurement
Standard method for proline content.
Striga damage
StrigaDmg
Plant
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
Striga damage
NDVI - Measurement
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Tassel
Tassel density
density
TslDen
Density of spikelets.
variable_of
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
RGY - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
1-9 Grain color scale
Root sucrose content
Sucrose content
Sucrose content in the root.
RSucrose
Root
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
CSCInc
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt incidence
Plant
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHTslB - Measurement
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
AspERSev - Estimation
Aflatox - Measurement
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LateWiltInc - Counting
Number of plants per unit area.
PStand
stand
Plant
Plant stand
¡C
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
AntCol
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anther
Anthocyanin coloration
1-4 Ear shape scale
Glucose - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
Standard method for silk growth rate.
SilkGrwR - Computation
¡C day
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
Mpa
1-11 Grain type scale
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
UpESh - Estimation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
EWormInc - Computation
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
height
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Plant height
Plant
PH
1-3 Cob color scale
scale_of
SteWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ear/plot
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PpolySev - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Counting
1-3 Ear shape scale
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc - Measurement
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
opening
Tassel angle.
Tassel opening
Tassel
TslOpen
Standard method for tassel blasting.
TslBlastSev - Estimation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMJInc - Computation
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Chl - Measurement
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
EH - Measurement
1-5 Pericarp color scale
tiller/plant
storability
Grain storability
Grain storability refers to the ability of grains to remain viable and maintain their quality over a period of time when stored under a given condition.
Grain
ear/plant
lb/plot
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EDmg - Estimation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
DTS - Computation
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
t/ha
GNC - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
EHvst - Counting
EAsp - Estimation
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AphDmg - Estimation