white cap
6
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LProline_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
no dead leaf area
0
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
weak
2
NDVI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
low to medium infection
4
11-20% dead leaf area
2
BmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProt_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GrTast_CompRank_Bl3
dark green
3
GY_DW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
conical-cylindrical
2
WeevInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
5
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
pop
7
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWid_M_mm
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCond_M_mmolm2s
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
excellent
1
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
present
1
DMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dark purple
3
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
100%
1
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DsTol_CompRank_Bl3
StdGerm_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RSucrose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Cmp_Cday
AnthesisGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very poor germination (0-10%)
5
CSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
primary
1
AbStr_CompRank_Bl3
EDia_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RelChk_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslTyp_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Date_ymd
AD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RGlucose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Cmp_earplnt
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
21-30% dead leaf area
3
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
intermediate germination (30-69%)
3
GLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WeevN_Ct_weevil
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
cream
2
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PUnif_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
postrate
5
PH_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
2
weak to medium
4
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OP_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EPo_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
reddish
4
TslDen_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
red
3
GrMark_CompRank_Bl3
TslSiz_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
GTex_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Cmp_Cday
MaturityGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
colorless
1
EPo_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very poor
5
PericCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
normal
2
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_M_gear
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoCol_E_1to6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_Date_ymd
SD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately (50% ) damaged
3
medium
3
MSVSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
other
5
red
9
moderate to high level of blasting
4
medium infection
5
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white
1
LWid_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium
3
GOil_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
severly infested
5
SRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g1000grn
TGW
TKW
1000KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LGBDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Date_ymd
MD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLng_CompRank_Bl3
FungDis_E_text
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRN_Ct_rowear
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_DT_day
DTS
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTW_M_lbbsh
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
poor
4
GTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRArr_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
31-40% dead leaf area
4
flint
6
GmRt_CompRank_Bl3
GY_FW_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OvPerf_CompRank_Bl3
slightly (20%) damaged
2
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProline_M_mgg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GIron_M_ppm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
4
very vigorous
1
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
long
4
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
high infection
7
erect
1
CSSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GNC_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_ugmg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
green
1
BCLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSen_DT_day
DTELSen
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StemCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GVitA_M_µgg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
4
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
slightly (20%) infested
2
RootCapac_M_uF
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HskCov_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white cap
8
BmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
YLChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_DT_day
DTM
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
highly (>80%) damaged
5
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_CompRank_Bl3
PstTol_CompRank_Bl3
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
straight
3
GW_FW_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CobNb_CompRank_Bl3
TSCSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslOpen_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTrp_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
brown
4
GProt_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g100grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
3
MSVSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
light green
1
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
100KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderate level of blasting
3
HSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
no blasting
1
FgramERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dense
3
red
3
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBN_Ct_branch
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LRollSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
other
5
round
4
normal
3
81-90% dead leave area
9
medium to high infection
6
small
3
ELng_M_mm
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLng_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EShape_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StBorDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g100grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
intermediate
2
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
mixed
3
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
present
2
PVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
3
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
EW_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
MCob_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
absent
1
intermediate grain hardness
3
cylindrical
3
brown
5
Highest rank
1
GY_Adj_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi erect
2
EH_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Rank_number
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Middle rank
2
Ant_DT_day
DTA
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium
5
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
yellow
4
unrolled
1
compact
2
low ear position
1
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
5
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dent
3
BLSBSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
dent
5
BCLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white
1
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
brown
5
orange
6
LAsh_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
good
2
Gcol_CompRank_Bl3
soft and opaque grains
5
strongly pointed
6
moderately (50% ) infested
3
Opaque 2/QPM
9
GY_Adj_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
absent
0
GY_DW_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
no infection
1
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LodgInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHFL_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
weak
4
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
shrunken
1
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSen_Date_ymd
ELSenD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
4
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
poor germination (11-29%)
4
AWormDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ASI_Cmp_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
low infection
3
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GUpSSh_E_1to6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
OA_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
secondary
2
medium to strong
6
EndoTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MatT_CompRank_BL3
intermediate
3
CSSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very long
5
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GThk_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very high infection
8
TslBW_DW_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
bronze
2
Lowest rank
3
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very compact
1
pointed
5
GOil_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very high level of blasting
5
irregular
2
turgid leaves
2
semi-dent
4
level
3
CSCMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g200grn
200KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi open
3
pale yellow
3
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
5
95%
2
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
strong
4
acronym
very short
1
indented
2
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Significantly (70%) infested
4
PERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
colorless
1
flint
1
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
cylindrical
1
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CompLoc_CompRank_Bl3
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very strong
9
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
RProl_M_ugg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GrStor_CompRank_Bl3
orange
5
cylindrical-conical
2
GWid_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
good germination (70-89%)
2
sweet
8
high ear position
3
DMSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
floury
1
very weak
5
sparse
1
SdSizUse_compRank_Bl3
regular
1
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
61-70% dead leave area
7
absent or very weak
1
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
71-80% dead leave area
8
51-60% dead leave area
6
dense
3
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
sun red
2
clean, no damage
1
AntAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
lax
1
GSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
variegated
4
green
2
GY_FW_lbPlot
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
desirable
3
white
1
semi-flint
2
rounded
4
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
5
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AWornDmg_CompRank_Bl3
AspERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MAIZE ontology
not severely rolled leaves
4
entity
red
3
HSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Lowest rank
3
conical
1
BCLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very strong
5
excellent germination (90-100%)
1
drooping
4
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1-10% dead leaf area
1
very low infection
2
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
1
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
2
ear around mid-plant
2
attribute
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
light purple
2
strong to very strong
8
vigorous
2
very weak to weak
2
no infestation
1
yellow
2
mottled
7
spiral
4
open
4
conical
3
semi horizontal
3
weak
3
strong
7
Middle rank
2
intermediate
3
grayyish white
2
low to moderate level of blasting
2
short
2
41-50% dead leave area
5
medium
2
hard and transparent grains
1
purple
4
Highest rank
1
large
1
severe infection
9
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
absent
1
Diabrotica damage
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
DiabroticaDmg
Plant
Diabrotica damage
Ear growth rate
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
EGrwR
Ear
growth rate
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ear weight
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
EW
Ear
weight
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
MRFVInc
Plant
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
SilkCol
Silk
Anthocyanin coloration
FmonSRSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Grain upper surface shape
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
GUpSSh
Grain
upper surface shape
Striga plant number
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
StrigaPN
Striga
Plant number
SmaySev - Estimation
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
tiller/plant
Ear number
Ear number.
EN
Ear
number
plant/plot
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
Grain starch content
Whole-grain starch content.
GStarch
Grain
Starch content
Endosperm protein content
Protein content in grain endosperm.
EndoProt
Endosperm
Protein content
Relative to check - Computation
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
SRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
MSVInc
Plant
Maize streak virus incidence
Stewarts wilt incidence
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
SteWiltInc
Plant
Stewarts wilt incidence
CSCInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
TslGlCol
Tassel glumes
Anthocyanin coloration
g/100grain
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
ASI - Computation
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
Water index
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
WI
Plant
water index
Comparative ranking by users method
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
g/plot
TslBlastSev - Estimation
Standard method for tassel blasting.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
PLSSev
Leaf
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
1-5 damage scoring scale
%
0-1 absent-present scale
Plant height
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
PH
Plant
height
RGY - Computation
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
Silk length
Silk length.
SilkLng
Silk
length
LateWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
CT
Plant
canopy temperature
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
StBorDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StrigaPN - Counting
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
EturcSev - Estimation
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
Cob number
Number of cobs
Cob
Number
LodgInc - Estimation
Scored for severity of lodging.
Tassel branching type
Branching type of tassel.
TslTyp
Tassel
branching type
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Aflatox
Grain
Aflatoxin content
Grain texture
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex
Grain
texture
lb/plot
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Grain width
Grain width.
GWid
Grain
width
AntAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AphDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Rank: 3
ELLng - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf length.
Endosperm color
Color of the endosperm.
EndoCol
Endosperm
color
Leaf ash content
Ash content in maize leaves.
LAsh
Leaf
Ash content
Leaf length
Leaf length.
LLng
Leaf
length
CSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
DMVSev
Plant
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
EndoTrp
Endosperm
Tryptophan content
index
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
EturcSev
Leaf
Turcicum leaf blight severity
PUnif - Estimation
Standard method for plant uniformity
Cob sucrose content
Sucrose content in the cob
CSucrose
Cob
Sucrose content
Plants harvested
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
PHvst
Plant
havested number
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
PHFL
Plant
height to ligule of the flag leaf
GLng - Measurement
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LRollSev - Estimation
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
PHTslB - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Leaf color
Color of the leaf.
LCol
Leaf
color
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PStand - Counting
Count total number of plants per plot.
1-5 disease scoring scale
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Maize weevil number in Grain
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
Grain
Maize weevil number
BusseolaInc - Counting
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
1-9 disease scoring scale
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
Shell - Computation
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
AstriInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
uF
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
MRDVInc
Plant
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Leaf erectness
Insertion angle of the leaves.
LErect
Leaf
erectness
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
DMSInc
Plant
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel density
Density of spikelets.
TslDen
Tassel
density
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
WeevInc
Grain
Maize weevil incidence
Grain type
Type of grain.
GTyp
Grain
type
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
ALBInc
Plant
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
FmonSRInc
Plant
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
LABA
Leaf
Abscisic acid content
PDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DTS - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
Ear position ratio
PVig - Estimation
Standard method for plant vigor
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
Chl - Measurement
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
PHvst - Counting
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
CharRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GProt - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
mm
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TslOpen - Estimation
Standard method for tassel opening
BHskCovInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
Tassel branch weight
Weight of tassel branches.
TslBW
Tassel branch
weight
Grain proline content
Proline content in the grain.
GProline
Grain
Proline content
CharRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
CTMInc
Plant
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Young leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
YLChl
Young leaf
Chlorophyll content
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Plant
Pythium stalk rot incidence
EDmg - Estimation
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
RootCapac - Measurement
Standard method for root capitance.
WeevN - Counting
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
Stem lodging incidence
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
SLodgInc
Plant
stem lodging incidence
mg/g
GW FW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
ng/µg
Grain Lysine content
Whole-grain Lysine content.
GLys
Grain
Lysine content
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
BmaySev
Leaf
Maydis leaf blight severity
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel size
Tassel size.
TslSiz
Tassel
size
EH - Measurement
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Grain iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
GIron
Grain
Iron content
EAsp - Estimation
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
1-3 Ear shape scale
g/1000grain
MRCVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Root proline content
Proline content in the root.
RProl
Root
Proline content
Photochemical radiation index
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
PRI
Plant
photochemical radiation index
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
DMVInc
Plant
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
¡C
Standard germination
Standard germination.
StdGerm
Grain
Standard germination
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
AspERSev
Ear
Aspergillus ear rot severity
PHFL - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Ear bad husk cover incidence
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
BHskCovInc
Ear
bad husk cover incidence
Grain thickness
Thickness of the grain.
GThk
Grain
thickness
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
FmonERSev
Ear
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
GTyp - Estimation
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
BSDMInc
Plant
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence.
SdlngDisInc
Plant
Seedling disease incidence
EDia - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
cm/day
t/ha
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
Ear height
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
EH
Plant
height to insertion of uppermost ear
1-5 Tassel opening scale
TSCSev - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
FusSRInc
Plant
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
PAsp - Estimation
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the root.
RABA
Root
Abscisic acid content
Ear length
Ear length.
ELng
Ear
length
kg/ha
Adjusted GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
Plant stand
Number of plants per unit area.
PStand
Plant
stand
MLNSev - Estimation
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
OA
Plant
osmotic adjustment
Senescence
Leaf senescence.
Sen
Leaf
senescence
ChiloDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Grain abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
GABA
Grain
Abscisic acid content
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GW Adjusted - Computation
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Plant aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
PAsp
Plant
aspect
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
SmaySev
Ear
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
HskCov - Estimation
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
CobGlCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
Endosperm hardness
Endosperm hardness.
EndoHard
Endosperm
hardness
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Grain protein content
Whole-grain protein content.
GProt
Grain
Protein content
Grain taste
Taste of the grain (after cooking? Raw?)
Grain
taste
Grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
GRN
Ear
grain row number
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Tar spot complex severity
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
TSCSev
Leaf
Tar spot complex severity
GCol - Estimation
Observe color of grains.
Earworm damage
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
EWormDmg
Ear
Earworm damage
Normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
NDVI
Plant
normalized difference vegetation index
Grain zinc content
Whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc
Grain
Zinc content
Ear aspect
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
EAsp
Ear
aspect
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Root capacitance
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
RootCapac
Root
capacitance
Leaf rolling severity
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
LRollSev
Leaf
rolling severity
grain/plant
Grain provitaminA content
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA
Grain
ProvitaminA content
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
BCLSSev
Leaf
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Grain glucose content
Glucose content in the grain.
GGlucose
Grain
Glucose content
cm
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
1-11 Grain type scale
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
MLNSev
Plant
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
StBorDmg
Plant
Stem borer damage
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
Record shelled cob field weight.
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
AflavERSev
Ear
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
FgramSRInc
Plant
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Plant uniformity
Uniformity of plants.
PUnif
Plant
uniformity
Grain marketability
Grain marketability refers to the commercial viability or attractiveness of a particular type of grain for sale in the agricultural market.
Grain
marketability
Multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
MCob
Plant
multiple cob incidence
g/200grain
Root lodging incidence
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
RLodgInc
Plant
root lodging incidence
AleuCol - Estimation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
StenSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ppm
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
Head smut severity
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
HSmutSev
Plant
Head smut severity
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
PpolySev - Estimation
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Tillering
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
Plant
tillering
Grain number
Grain number.
GN
Grain
number
FmonSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel branch number
Number of branches on tassel.
TslBN
Tassel branch
number
PERSev - Estimation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EndoProt - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
MCob - Counting
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
StemCol - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
DMJInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Text
Ear width
Ear width.
EWid
Ear
width
Cob glumes color
Color of the cob glumes.
CobGlCol
Cob glumes
color
Tassel blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
TslBlastSev
Tassel
blasting severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
CSSSev
Plant
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
CSCMSev
Plant
Maize bushy stunt severity
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
StenSRInc
Plant
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
LAsh- Measurement
Standard method for leaves ash content
kg/plot
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
SRInc
Plant
Stalk rot incidence
EWormInc - Counting
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
ear/plant
RLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GVitA - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
ELChl
Ear leaf
Chlorophyll content
Maturity date - Estimation
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
GLSSev - Estimation
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Leaf width
Leaf width.
LWid
Leaf
width
Grain length
Grain length.
GLng
Grain
length
Leaf sucrose content
Sucrose content in the leaf
LSucrose
Leaf
Sucrose content
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GNC - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
Diatraea damage
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
DiatraeaDmg
Plant
Diatraea damage
Pericarp color
Color of the pericarp.
PericCol
Pericarp
color
WI - Measurement
Standard method for water index.
GMoi - Computation
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
CharRInc
Plant
Charcoal rot incidence
mmol /m2/s
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for ear shape
Lodging incidence
Observation of lodging severity.
LodgInc
Plant
lodging incidence
1-2 absent-present scale
Plant vigor
Plant vigor.
PVig
Plant
vigor
Seedling vigor
Seedling vigor.
SdlngVig
Seedling
vigor
YLChl - Measurement
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
umol/g
FmonSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
TslCol
Tassel
Anthocyanin coloration
GTrp - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
GThk - Measurement
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
Grain Nitrogen content
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
GNC
Grain
Nitrogen content
Ear damage
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
EDmg
Ear
Ear damage
Grain test weight
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
GTW
Grain
test weight
Leaf proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
LProline
Leaf
Proline content
GW DW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GYRank - Computation
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence.
ERInc
Ear
Ear rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
BactSRInc
Plant
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Glucose - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
Brown spot severity
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
BwSpotSev
Leaf
Brown spot severity
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
LGBDmg
Grain
Large grain borer damage
OA - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
Ear harvested number
Number of ears harvested.
EHvst
Ear
harvested number
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
ppb
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
LateWiltInc
Plant
Late wilt incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
SCMVInc
Plant
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
ug/g
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity.
FusERSev
Ear
Fusarium ear rot severity
Tillering - Counting
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
MRDVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
AntCol
Anther
Anthocyanin coloration
TslExer - Estimation
Standard method for tassel exertion
Maturity time
Maturity time.
Plant
maturity time
EN - Computation
Compute number of ears using the formula.
Ear position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
EPo
Ear
position
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
FgramERSev
Ear
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
1-5 Grain texture scale
Ear husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
HskCov
Ear
husk cover
Shelled cob weight
Weight of shelled cob.
ShellCobW
Shelled cob
weight or yield
NDVI - Measurement
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
BHskCovInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
ng/g
Ear diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
EDia
Ear
diameter
Ear leaf length
Ear leaf (blade) length.
ELLng
Ear leaf
length
row/ear
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Comparative ranking by farmers method
Ranking of phenotypes based on field observations/on testing of food products
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-3 size scale
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
RLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
FgramERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
CT - Measurement
Standard method for canopy temperature.
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
CSCInc
Plant
Corn stunt incidence
DW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Army worm damage
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
AWormDmg
Plant
Army worm damage
EPo - Computation
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Striga damage
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
StrigaDmg
Plant
Striga damage
NIRS GOil - Measurement
NIRS method for oil content
ear/plot
g
Stem color
Color of the stem.
StemCol
Stem
color
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
LateWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Uppermost ear shape
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
UpESh
Uppermost ear
shape
Grain oil content
Whole-grain oil content.
GOil
Grain
Oil content
NIRS Moi - Measurement
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
Seed size for target use/market
Size of seeds matching demand for a use or a market
Grain
size
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
¡C day
Disease tolerance
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of infection on its fitness regardless of the level of disease pathogen multiplication (
Plant
Disease Tolerance
1-5 Pericarp color scale
FgramSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for leaves ash content
GUpSSh - Estimation
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
Root glucose content
Glucose content in the root.
RGlucose
Root
Glucose content
Overall performance
Plants ability to thrive, adapt, and produce desired outcomes in a given environment or context.
Plant
Overall performance
Silking time
Silking time.
Silk
Plant
silking time
CSCInc - Counting
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ear shape
Ear shape
EShape
Ear
shape
Germination rate
Germination rate is calculated by dividing the number of seeds that sprout by the total number of seeds started, and then multiplying that number by 100 to get a percentage.
Grain
Germination
PsacchInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
CobGlCol
Cob glumes
Anthocyanin coloration
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
MSTVInc
Plant
Maize stripe virus incidence
1-4 Ear shape scale
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
SilkGrwR - Computation
Standard method for silk growth rate.
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
TRustSev
Leaf
Tropical rust severity
Grain Tryptophan content
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
GTrp
Grain
Tryptophan content
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
CLSSev
Leaf
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Aphid damage
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
AphDmg
Plant
Aphid damage
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
DMJInc
Plant
Java downy mildew incidence
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Aleurone color
Color of the aleurone.
AleuCol
Aleurone
color
ug/mg
Busseola damage
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
BusseolaDmg
Plant
Busseola damage
Ear shelling ratio
GCol - Estimation
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
EPo - Estimation
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
GWLostWeev
Grain
weight loss by maize weevil
Common smut incidence
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
CSmutInc
Plant
Common smut incidence
Endosperm Lysine content
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
EndoLys
Endosperm
Lysine content
Head smut incidence
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
HSmutInc
Plant
Head smut incidence
Ear leaf senescence time
Ear leaf senescence time.
ELSen
Plant
ear leaf senescence time
Grain storability
Grain storability refers to the ability of grains to remain viable and maintain their quality over a period of time when stored under a given condition.
Grain
storability
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
PDMInc
Plant
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
MRCVInc
Plant
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
yyyymmdd
Proline - Measurement
Standard method for proline content.
Silk growth rate
Growth rate of silk.
SilkGrwR
Silk
growth rate
Ear leaf weight
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
ELW
Ear leaf
weight
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
FmonSRSev
Plant
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
SLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
Osmotic potential
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
OP
Plant
osmotic potential
EndoHard - Estimation
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
LCol - Estimation
Standard method for leaf color.
EN - Counting
Count the number of ears.
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
MSTVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TslDen - Estimation
Standard method for tassel density
Grain yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
GY
Grain
yield
Rust severity
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
RustSev
Leaf
Rust severity
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
GLSSev
Leaf
Gray leaf spot severity
Tassel opening
Tassel angle.
TslOpen
Tassel
opening
BLSBSev - Estimation
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Earworm incidence
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
EWormInc
Ear
Earworm incidence
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
GTex - Estimation
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Common rust severity
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
CRustSev
Leaf
Common rust severity
Chlorophyll content
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Chl
Leaf
Chlorophyll content
Grain ash content
Whole-grain ash content.
GAsh
Grain
Ash content
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
1-3 Tassel density scale
UpESh - Estimation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
CLSSev - Estimation
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PytSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
AstriInc
Plant
Black bundle incidence
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
DMSSev
Plant
Sorghum downy mildew severity
branch
Ranking:3
EWid - Measurement
Meaure ear width.
Tassel exertion
Tassel exertion.
TslExer
Tassel
exertion
Grain row arrangement
Ear grain rows arrangement.
GRArr
Ear
grain row arrangement
SteWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
EHvst - Counting
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
GWid - Measurement
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
Busseola incidence
Busseola larvae incidence.
BusseolaInc
Plant
Busseola damage incidence
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content in the grain
GSucrose
Grain
Sucrose content
pg/g
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain moisture
Grain moisture.
GMoi
Grain
moisture content
EWormDmg - Measurement
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
Ear shelling ratio
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Shell
Ear
Shelling ratio
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
Fungal disease presence
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
FungDis
Plant
Fungal disease presence
weevil
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FusERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMJInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GAsh - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
HSmutSev - Estimation
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
Grain weight
Grain weight of mature kernels.
GW
Grain
weight
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
PpolySev
Leaf
Polysora rust severity
Anthesis date - Estimation
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
1-3 Ear position scale
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity.
PERSev
Ear
Penicillium ear rot severity
1-9 Grain color scale
Stomatal conductance
Leaf stomatal conductance
SCond
Leaf
Stomatal conductance
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
day
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
method_of
TslSiz - Estimation
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
TslAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
Common smut severity
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
CSmutSev
Ear
Common smut severity
MSVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Aflatox - Measurement
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
Anthesis time
Anthesis time.
Ant
Plant
anthesis time
Grain color
Color of the grain.
GCol
Grain
color
Pest tolerance
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of damages on its fitness regardless of the level of pest pathogen multiplication (
Plant
Pest tolerance
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Mpa
1-5 Vigor scale
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
BLSBSev
Leaf
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
LLng - Measurement
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
ALBInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GRArr - Estimation
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
ShtPub - Estimation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
TRustSev - Estimation
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
WeevInc - Estimation
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
GOil - Measurement
Standard method for oil content
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Rank number
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
DMSev
Leaf
Downy mildew severity
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
MRFVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 density scale
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
PHTslB
Plant
height to insertion of first tassel branch
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
PsacchInc
Plant
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
GIron - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
1-5 Leaf color scale
DMSSev - Estimation
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Root sucrose content
Sucrose content in the root.
RSucrose
Root
Sucrose content
EGrwR - Computation
Standard method for ear growth rate.
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
CCI
Sheath pubescence
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
ShtPub
Sheath
pubescence
1-3 Cob color scale
EarW Field weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
Chilo damage
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
ChiloDmg
Plant
Chilo damage
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
Abiotic stress tolerance
The hosts ability to reduce the effect of stress on its fitness regardless of the level of abiotic stress (flood, drought, …) applied
Plant
Abiotic stress tolerance
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
TslGlBCol
Tassel glumes base
Anthocyanin coloration
Comparison with local
Performance of a maize variety with the local variety
Plant
Comparison with local
Silking date - Estimation
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
EWormInc - Computation
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
CRustSev - Estimation
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
scale_of
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
1-5 Stem color scale
FusSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GStarch - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
StdGerm - Estimation
Standard method for standard germination
GN - Computation
Standard method for grain number.
BSDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
variable_of
0-10 Senescence scale
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
1-5 rating scale
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
MSVSev
Plant
Maize streak virus severity
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
lb/bsh
Anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval.
ASI
Plant
anthesis silking interval
GZinc - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
1-5 Aleurone color scale
1-5 Standard germination scale
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
g/plant/day