4
semi-dent
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WeevInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PUnif_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
shrunken
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Adj_tha
GMoi_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_DT_day
DTA
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDia_M_cm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
3
AspERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
severly infested
5
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
GProt_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
erect
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
5
very poor
5
medium infection
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EH_M_cm
present
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to5
EndoHard_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
LGBDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslTyp_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
long
4
CIMMYT
FmonSRSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
grayyish white
2
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWid_M_mm
GxE
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_pct
GGlucose_M_ugmg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
slightly (20%) damaged
2
very weak
5
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to5
1
green
3
high ear position
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
secondary
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EW_M_gear
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
floury
CSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SD
GVitA_M_Âµgg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
yellow
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_E_pct
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to9
EturcSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
1
hard and transparent grains
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRArr_E_1to4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_tha
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GThk_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to5
FgramERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTrp_NIRS_pct
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
very compact
1
PLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProt_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
moderately (50% ) damaged
highly (>80%) damaged
5
GY_RelChk_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
OA_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to5
GNC_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
TGW
GW_DW_g1000grn
1000KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TKW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
SCond_M_mmolm2s
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GWid_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
2
good germination (70-89%)
CIMMYT
LCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
GTW_M_lbbsh
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
GSucrose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
5
DTS
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Silk_DT_day
SdlngVig_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
GGlucose_M_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StBorDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
intermediate
3
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
conical-cylindrical
2
31-40% dead leaf area
4
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RSucrose_M_ngug
2
ear around mid-plant
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
LProline_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_pct
3
cylindrical
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
turgid leaves
2
WeevN_Ct_weevil
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
7
strong
RGlucose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GUpSSh_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GAsh_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
TslOpen_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
8
strong to very strong
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
4
yellow
intermediate
2
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
5
very long
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
flint
6
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
reddish
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoTrp_M_pct
sparse
1
CIMMYT
TslBN_Ct_branch
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
PRI_M_idx
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Mat_Cmp_Cday
CIMMYT
MaturityGDU
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
red
CIMMYT
LAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LRollSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
3
semi open
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MD
CIMMYT
Mat_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoCol_E_1to6
TSCSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GOil_M_pct
excellent germination (90-100%)
1
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_kgha
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
StemCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ASI_Cmp_day
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
5
medium
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslSiz_E_1to3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRN_Ct_rowear
6
orange
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g200grn
CIMMYT
4
round
6
strongly pointed
Ant_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AD
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgPlot
3
conical
CIMMYT
GLng_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to5
spiral
4
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
4
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_text
HSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GOil_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
TSCSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ERInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
rounded
4
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_umolg
EPo_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
Mat_DT_day
CIMMYT
DTM
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
primary
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LodgInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very low infection
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
weak
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
EDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
open
4
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_ugg
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
4
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
absent
3
small
71-80% dead leave area
8
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
semi-flint
2
LAsh_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELLng_M_cm
DMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
colorless
1
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
dark purple
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
normal
3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RABA_M_ngg
drooping
4
YLChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
purple
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EAsp_E_1to5
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
very vigorous
1
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
4
poor germination (11-29%)
cream
2
CIMMYT
CSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
2
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
green
2
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
PAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PHFL_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
MSVSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
pop
7
very strong
5
PericCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very high level of blasting
5
3
red
purple
5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_umolg
100KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
SilkLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
OP_M_Mpa
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_pct
TslDen_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTELSen
ELSen_DT_day
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
200KW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g200grn
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
5
CSCMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
variegated
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
51-60% dead leave area
6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTex_E_1to5
no infestation
1
vigorous
2
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_kgPlot
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
entity
present
2
BmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
weak
2
9
red
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
NDVI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Rank_number
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
purple
4
CSSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
Significantly (70%) infested
very high infection
8
HskCov_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Opaque 2/QPM
9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Adj_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
TRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
UpESh_E_1to4
2
low to moderate level of blasting
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
EShape_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
medium
9
severe infection
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Cmp_Cday
AnthesisGDU
low infection
3
very strong
9
4
purple
5
brown
GLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
CIMMYT
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
semi erect
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
absent
1
CIMMYT
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
colorless
1
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
AWormDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgha
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslBW_DW_g
1-10% dead leaf area
1
3
straight
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PH_M_cm
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
desirable
3
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
mottled
7
7
high infection
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
poor
4
4
brown
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
soft and opaque grains
5
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
excellent
1
3
dent
short
2
GIron_M_ppm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
95%
2
normal
2
attribute
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_kgPlot
3
level
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to9
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
indented
2
1
white
2
very weak to weak
brown
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
postrate
5
8
white cap
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELChl_M_CCI
absent
0
CIMMYT
BLSBSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
41-50% dead leave area
5
other
5
light green
1
irregular
2
white
1
EPo_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
8
sweet
good
2
4
weak to medium
no blasting
1
intermediate grain hardness
3
large
1
CIMMYT
GProline_M_mgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very short
1
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_lbPlot
clean, no damage
1
compact
2
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LWid_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StdGerm_E_1to5
3
pale yellow
1
cylindrical
very poor germination (0-10%)
5
2
cylindrical-conical
light purple
2
GxE
ELng_M_mm
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
not severely rolled leaves
CIMMYT
AleuCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
bronze
CIMMYT
RootCapac_M_uF
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Cmp_earplnt
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
dense
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
2
medium
81-90% dead leave area
9
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
no infection
1
1
white
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
4
moderate to high level of blasting
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
1
absent or very weak
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to5
3
dark green
medium to strong
6
1
100%
no dead leaf area
0
1
low ear position
6
white cap
3
dense
1
regular
4
weak
5
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
4
low to medium infection
moderate level of blasting
3
3
mixed
3
moderately (50% ) infested
3
red
1
unrolled
3
intermediate
medium to high infection
6
other
5
11-20% dead leaf area
2
21-30% dead leaf area
3
sun red
2
pointed
5
strong
4
2
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
orange
5
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
conical
1
semi horizontal
3
intermediate germination (30-69%)
3
1
lax
MAIZE ontology
slightly (20%) infested
2
5
dent
acronym
1
flint
61-70% dead leave area
7
RGY - Computation
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FmonSRInc - Counting
%
Osmotic adjustment
OA
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
osmotic adjustment
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
number
Tassel branch number
Number of branches on tassel.
TslBN
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
NIRS GProt- Measurement
Maturity date - Estimation
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45Â¡.
RLodgInc
root lodging incidence
Root lodging incidence
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW FW - Measurement
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMJInc - Computation
GVitA - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
kg/plot
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
FgramERSev
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
PDMInc
Philippine downy mildew incidence
1-5 rating scale
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FmonSRInc - Computation
Abscisic acid content
Grain abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
GABA
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
BSDMInc
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Common smut severity
Common smut severity
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
CSmutSev
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlCol
Plant aspect
PAsp
aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
t/ha
ChiloDmg
Chilo damage
Chilo damage
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence.
ERInc
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
Common rust severity
Common rust severity
CRustSev
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
RustSev
Rust severity
Rust severity
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Plant uniformity
PUnif
uniformity
Uniformity of plants.
Standard method for tassel type.
TslTyp - Estimation
ng/Âµg
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SRInc - Counting
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
NDVI
normalized difference vegetation index
Normalized difference vegetation index
1-5 Stem color scale
weight
Weight of tassel branches.
Tassel branch weight
TslBW
Tillering
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
tillering
g/plant/day
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
TslGlBCol
Grain length.
Grain length
GLng
length
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
Busseola damage
Busseola damage
BusseolaDmg
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
FmonSRInc
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FusERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Ear damage
EDmg
Ear damage
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PpolySev - Estimation
GLys
Grain Lysine content
Whole-grain Lysine content.
Lysine content
GSucrose
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content in the grain
Sucrose content
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70Â¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
EarW Field weight - Measurement
MRCVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
GIron - Measurement
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
EndoHard - Estimation
EGrwR - Computation
Standard method for ear growth rate.
Tar spot complex severity
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
Tar spot complex severity
TSCSev
position
Ear position
EPo
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
g
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
DW GY - Computation
1-4 Ear shape scale
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
OA - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
Ear shape
EShape
Ear shape
shape
Maturity time
Maturity time.
maturity time
Mat
Standard method for ear leaf length.
ELLng - Measurement
1-5 disease scoring scale
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
WeevN - Counting
FmonSRSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Tassel exertion
Tassel exertion.
TslExer
exertion
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
Leaf proline content
Proline content
LProline
Proline content in the leaf.
Type of grain.
GTyp
Grain type
type
WeevInc - Estimation
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EturcSev - Estimation
PDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
TslSiz - Estimation
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StBorDmg - Estimation
Lysine content
EndoLys
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Endosperm Lysine content
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
CSCMSev
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt severity
WeevN
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
Maize weevil number
Maize weevil number in Grain
Standard method for silk length.
SilkLng - Measurement
GZinc - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
EGrwR
Ear growth rate
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
growth rate
AntAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Busseola damage incidence
Busseola larvae incidence.
1-9 disease scoring scale
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the root.
RABA
Abscisic acid content
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
Ear diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
diameter
EDia
Sucrose content
Sucrose content in the cob
Cob sucrose content
CSucrose
cm
mg/g
Shell
Shelling ratio
Ear shelling ratio
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Maize weevil incidence
Color of the cob glumes.
color
Cob glumes color
CobGlCol
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlCol - Estimation
1-5 Vigor scale
Anthesis date - Estimation
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Counting
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70Â¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
CRustSev - Estimation
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
AleuCol - Estimation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
Curvularia leaf spot severity
CLSSev
Curvularia leaf spot severity
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
PRI
photochemical radiation index
Photochemical radiation index
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
vigor
Seedling vigor
SdlngVig
Seedling vigor.
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
MCob
multiple cob incidence
Multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
1-5 Standard germination scale
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
CSSSev
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
GCol - Estimation
Observe color of grains.
GTyp - Estimation
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
PHvst - Counting
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
AflavERSev
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Plants harvested
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
havested number
PHvst
weevil
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 damage scoring scale
Color of the aleurone.
Aleurone color
AleuCol
color
Â¡C
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
width
EWid
Ear width
Ear width.
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MLNSev
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
DMSSev
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-9 Grain color scale
1-5 Tassel opening scale
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
ELChl
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
CSCInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Tassel density
density
TslDen
Density of spikelets.
Leaf width.
LWid
width
Leaf width
Iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
Grain iron content
GIron
Root proline content
Proline content in the root.
RProl
Proline content
index
GThk - Measurement
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
Striga plant number
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
StrigaPN
Plant number
Anthocyanin coloration
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
AntCol
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
DMSSev - Estimation
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
LWid - Measurement
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
CSSSev - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
BLSBSev
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Plant vigor
PVig
vigor
Plant vigor.
Standard method for oil content
GOil - Measurement
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Leaf ash content
LAsh
Ash content in maize leaves.
Ash content
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
g/plot
length
Ear leaf (blade) length.
Ear leaf length
ELLng
1-3 Cob color scale
DMJInc
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
Java downy mildew incidence
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AphDmg - Estimation
Aflatox - Measurement
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
GCol - Estimation
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
Grain oil content
GOil
Whole-grain oil content.
Oil content
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
ug/mg
FusSRInc
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot incidence
CharRInc
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
Scored for severity of lodging.
LodgInc - Estimation
plant/plot
tiller/plant
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust severity
TRustSev
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Chl - Measurement
PAsp - Estimation
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
SLodgInc
Stem lodging incidence
stem lodging incidence
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval
ASI
Anthesis silking interval.
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ShtPub
pubescence
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
Sheath pubescence
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust severity
PpolySev
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
LGBDmg
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer damage
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Head smut severity
variable_of
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
EH - Measurement
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Head smut incidence
HSmutInc
Head smut incidence
RGlucose
Root glucose content
Glucose content in the root.
Glucose content
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BLSBSev - Estimation
MRFVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
bad husk cover incidence
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
BHskCovInc
Ear bad husk cover incidence
GStarch
Starch content
Whole-grain starch content.
Grain starch content
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Adjusted GY - Computation
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
GLng - Measurement
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
GRArr
Ear grain rows arrangement.
grain row arrangement
Grain row arrangement
Aphid damage
AphDmg
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
Aphid damage
Standard method for glucose content.
Glucose - Measurement
Anthesis time.
Ant
Anthesis time
anthesis time
Rank number
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Diatraea damage
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
length
Ear length.
ELng
Ear length
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSmutInc - Computation
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle incidence
AstriInc
BwSpotSev - Estimation
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for ear shape
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
Canopy temperature.
Canopy temperature
CT
canopy temperature
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PH - Measurement
Leaf sucrose content
Sucrose content
LSucrose
Sucrose content in the leaf
Turcicum leaf blight severity
EturcSev
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
Turcicum leaf blight severity
MLNSev - Estimation
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
height
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Plant height
PH
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus ear rot severity
AspERSev
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Number of plants per unit area.
PStand
Plant stand
stand
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
YLChl
Chlorophyll content
Young leaf chlorophyll content
PHTslB - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslAnCol - Estimation
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
Stomatal conductance
SCond
Leaf stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSev - Estimation
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot severity
GLSSev
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70Â¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
FmonERSev
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
GWLostWeev
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
weight loss by maize weevil
width
Grain width
Grain width.
GWid
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FgramSRInc - Counting
Earworm damage
Earworm damage
EWormDmg
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
color
StemCol
Color of the stem.
Stem color
Standard method for canopy temperature.
CT - Measurement
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
upper surface shape
GUpSSh
Grain upper surface shape
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
MSVSev
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Maize streak virus severity
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
LRollSev - Estimation
ear/plot
Glucose content
Glucose content in the grain.
GGlucose
Grain glucose content
color
EndoCol
Endosperm color
Color of the endosperm.
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Counting
ShellCobW
Shelled cob weight
weight or yield
Weight of shelled cob.
Silk length.
Silk length
length
SilkLng
Ear shelling ratio
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-11 Grain type scale
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TslBlastSev
blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
Tassel blasting severity
TslOpen
Tassel opening
opening
Tassel angle.
FW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Standard method for standard germination
StdGerm - Estimation
erectness
Insertion angle of the leaves.
Leaf erectness
LErect
Standard method for tassel opening
TslOpen - Estimation
1-3 Ear position scale
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
CSCInc
Proline content
GProline
Grain proline content
Proline content in the grain.
0-1 absent-present scale
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BSDMInc - Computation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
UpESh - Estimation
umol/g
day
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
rolling severity
LRollSev
Leaf rolling severity
GWid - Measurement
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
SLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
CTMInc
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Ear leaf senescence time
ear leaf senescence time
ELSen
Ear leaf senescence time.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
PLSSev
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
husk cover
HskCov
Ear husk cover
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
g/100grain
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
FmonSRSev
GProt
Whole-grain protein content.
Protein content
Grain protein content
OP
osmotic potential
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
Osmotic potential
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 Pericarp color scale
yyyymmdd
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
GW Adjusted - Computation
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FusSRInc - Counting
GVitA
ProvitaminA content
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
Grain provitaminA content
ug/g
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVInc - Counting
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
ng/g
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CTMInc - Counting
method_of
Fusarium ear rot severity
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity.
Fusarium ear rot severity
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
YLChl - Measurement
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
height to insertion of first tassel branch
PHTslB
Mpa
1-2 absent-present scale
silking time
Silk
Silking time.
Silking time
lb/bsh
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
row/ear
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FusSRInc - Computation
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
weight
Ear weight
EW
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TSCSev - Estimation
pg/g
Shell - Computation
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
0-10 Senescence scale
EndoProt - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
ear/plant
CCI
RSucrose
Sucrose content
Sucrose content in the root.
Root sucrose content
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
LLng - Measurement
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
PHFL - Measurement
g/200grain
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity.
PERSev
Penicillium ear rot severity
GStarch - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
SRInc
PUnif - Estimation
Standard method for plant uniformity
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
EH
Ear height
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
Thickness of the grain.
GThk
Grain thickness
thickness
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
grain/plant
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
ALBInc
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMSInc - Computation
SdlngDisInc
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence
StdGerm
Standard germination.
Standard germination
Standard germination
StenSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Grain number.
GN
number
Grain number
Text
growth rate
Silk growth rate
SilkGrwR
Growth rate of silk.
1-5 Leaf color scale
EndoTrp
Tryptophan content
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
mmol /m2/s
RLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Root capacitance
RootCapac
capacitance
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
1-5 Grain texture scale
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
BHskCovInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
SilkCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GLSSev - Estimation
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
RLodgInc - Computation
Color of the leaf.
LCol
color
Leaf color
StrigaDmg
Striga damage
Striga damage
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
DMJInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for silk growth rate.
SilkGrwR - Computation
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
StrigaPN - Counting
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
GProt - Computation
Grain ash content
Whole-grain ash content.
Ash content
GAsh
Silking date - Estimation
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Standard method for tassel blasting.
TslBlastSev - Estimation
TslExer - Estimation
Standard method for tassel exertion
1-3 Ear shape scale
Standard method for proline content.
Proline - Measurement
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
Standard method for leaves ash content
LAsh- Measurement
Color of the pericarp.
Pericarp color
color
PericCol
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
SCMVInc
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
EarW Individual - Measurement
Grain test weight
test weight
GTW
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
ShtPub - Estimation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
shape
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
UpESh
Uppermost ear shape
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt incidence
LateWiltInc
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
GTrp - Measurement
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Anthocyanin coloration
TslCol
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
EDmg - Estimation
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
EDia - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
Â¡C day
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex
texture
Grain texture
Count total number of plants per plot.
PStand - Counting
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
BCLSSev
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
1-5 Aleurone color scale
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
EPo - Computation
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
SdlngDisInc - Counting
TslSiz
Tassel size
size
Tassel size.
MRDVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EHvst
Number of ears harvested.
harvested number
Ear harvested number
Tryptophan content
GTrp
Grain Tryptophan content
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
g/1000grain
BSDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EWormInc - Counting
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
Grain Nitrogen content
GNC
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Nitrogen content
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
aspect
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
EAsp
Ear aspect
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
PsacchInc
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Diabrotica damage
DiabroticaDmg
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Diabrotica damage
uF
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
EWormDmg - Measurement
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
EWormInc - Computation
moisture content
Grain moisture
GMoi
Grain moisture.
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SteWiltInc - Computation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PERSev - Estimation
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSTVInc - Computation
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
MCob - Counting
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
GY
Grain yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
yield
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
GRArr - Estimation
FgramSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
Leaf length
LLng
Leaf length.
length
NIRS GOil - Measurement
NIRS method for oil content
Grain weight of mature kernels.
Grain weight
GW
weight
Standard method for root capitance.
RootCapac - Measurement
SmaySev - Estimation
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Tillering - Counting
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
mm
CharRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GYRank - Computation
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
Grain zinc content
Zinc content
Whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc
ELW
Ear leaf weight
weight
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
DTS - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
EAsp - Estimation
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ALBInc - Computation
Aflatoxin content
Aflatox
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Standard method for leaf color.
LCol - Estimation
Lodging incidence
LodgInc
lodging incidence
Observation of lodging severity.
Endosperm hardness.
Endosperm hardness
EndoHard
hardness
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
CobGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
EHvst - Counting
Ear position ratio
LateWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Standard method for grain number.
GN - Computation
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Stewarts wilt incidence
PVig - Estimation
Standard method for plant vigor
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
Chl
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PDMInc - Counting
LABA
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
Color of the grain.
Grain color
color
GCol
Branching type of tassel.
TslTyp
branching type
Tassel branching type
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PsacchInc - Counting
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SteWiltInc - Counting
ppb
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
GNC - Measurement
kg/ha
DMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EndoProt
Endosperm protein content
Protein content in grain endosperm.
Protein content
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW DW - Measurement
1-3 density scale
StemCol - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
Brown spot severity
Brown spot severity
BwSpotSev
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
Earworm incidence
Earworm incidence
EWormInc
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
branch
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PytSRInc - Counting
GUpSSh - Estimation
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
CSmutInc
Common smut incidence
Common smut incidence
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
AWormDmg
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
Army worm damage
Army worm damage
GAsh - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
Compute number of ears using the formula.
EN - Computation
WI - Measurement
Standard method for water index.
cm/day
LateWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Ear number.
EN
Ear number
number
ppm
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
GRN
grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
Grain row number
Relative to check - Computation
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
Senescence
Sen
Leaf senescence.
senescence
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
ASI - Computation
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
1-3 Tassel density scale
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
lb/plot
scale_of
Fungal disease presence
FungDis
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Fungal disease presence
GMoi - Computation
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
WI
Water index
water index
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for leaves ash content
1-3 size scale
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale