GW_Adj_g200grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Ant_DT_day
DTA
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslDen_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
CIMMYT
FmonERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
moderately (50% ) infested
ELLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
sweet
8
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
severly infested
5
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_mm
very low infection
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBW_DW_g
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
EDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HskCov_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GxE
GTW_M_lbbsh
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GWid_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g200grn
CIMMYT
200KW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EN_Cmp_earplnt
very high infection
8
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
WI_M_idx
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
9
severe infection
8
strong to very strong
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoHard_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EPo_Cmp_ratio
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoCol_E_1to6
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
11-20% dead leaf area
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
primary
1
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLng_M_mm
CIMMYT
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LErect_E_1to4
CIMMYT
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
AWormDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHFL_M_cm
CIMMYT
1
absent or very weak
6
white cap
GLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
turgid leaves
2
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
9
red
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
2
cream
CIMMYT
WeevN_Ct_weevil
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
very poor germination (0-10%)
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
SCond_M_mmolm2s
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LWid_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EDia_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ASI_Cmp_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to5
1
no blasting
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
61-70% dead leave area
7
EturcSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EW_DW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g200grn
2
conical-cylindrical
CIMMYT
LAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LRollSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
semi horizontal
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
low ear position
1
1
white
regular
1
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
5
soft and opaque grains
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
level
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Date_ymd
AD
CIMMYT
GxE
GY_FW_lbPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
clean, no damage
1
CIMMYT
LSucrose_M_mgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
colorless
1
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
4
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GABA_M_ugg
PpolySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
purple
FgramERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
GTrp_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GUpSSh_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
NDVI_M_idx
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EWormDmg_M_cm
RustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
white cap
8
DTM
Mat_DT_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
1
hard and transparent grains
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
CIMMYT
LGBDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Rank_number
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
100KW
GW_DW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
cylindrical-conical
2
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GRN_Ct_rowear
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SdlngVig_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
low to moderate level of blasting
2
Shell_Cmp_ratio
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
intermediate
3
GThk_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
WeevInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very short
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
RGlucose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_FW_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
4
Mat_Cmp_Cday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MaturityGDU
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GAsh_NIRS_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
EH_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
medium
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium to strong
6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GVitA_M_µgg
CIMMYT
TslOpen_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
cylindrical
intermediate
2
GY_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_kgPlot
OP_M_Mpa
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FungDis_E_0to1
mixed
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
EWid_M_mm
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
purple
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TSCSev_E_1to5
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslTyp_E_1to3
CIMMYT
yellow
2
BCLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Mat_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
MD
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GY_FW_tha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SmaySev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Opaque 2/QPM
9
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkLng_M_cm
GW_DW_g1000grn
TKW
TGW
CIMMYT
1000KW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PH_M_cm
CIMMYT
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
5
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
brown
5
3
moderate level of blasting
2
semi erect
3
normal
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PERSev_E_pct
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
1
CLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
2
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ELW_M_g
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
4
purple
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_RelChk_pct
5
very high level of blasting
GProline_M_mgg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
4
Significantly (70%) damaged
CIMMYT
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
CIMMYT
5
very poor
CIMMYT
DTS
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_DT_day
GW_Adj_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTex_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GMoi_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BmaySev_E_1to5
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_NIRS_pct
Sen_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_1to5
ELSen_DT_day
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTELSen
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
2
good germination (70-89%)
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PericCol_E_1to5
4
yellow
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
absent
1
6
strongly pointed
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
highly (>80%) damaged
absent
0
intermediate grain hardness
3
3
dark purple
5
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SD
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Silk_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
GOil_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslSiz_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GStarch_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GTrp_M_pct
2
compact
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
excellent
1
low infection
3
SRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
21-30% dead leaf area
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
flint
6
5
very weak
BmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
medium
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
5
other
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MAIZE ontology
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PUnif_E_1to3
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LCol_E_1to5
dark green
3
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AflavERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EW_M_gear
CIMMYT
long
4
red
3
LodgInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GOil_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
white
1
4
open
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
attribute
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
2
light purple
no infection
1
EPo_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GNC_M_pct
green
1
1
cylindrical
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
3
6
medium to high infection
4
moderate to high level of blasting
TSCSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
3
moderately (50% ) damaged
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
FungDis_E_text
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
81-90% dead leave area
9
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
medium infection
5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to5
GSucrose_M_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MCob_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
CIMMYT
4
strong
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
drooping
CIMMYT
CobGlCol_E_1to3
1
present
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_1to9
GY_FW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GAsh_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LAsh_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
medium
CIMMYT
PLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
weak
4
poor germination (11-29%)
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
dense
3
dent
3
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AleuCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBN_Ct_branch
CIMMYT
4
brown
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_pct
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
not severely rolled leaves
4
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
acronym
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
intermediate germination (30-69%)
2
secondary
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
1
colorless
desirable
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
EShape_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
very strong
5
3
semi open
GIron_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
4
Significantly (70%) infested
CIMMYT
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
rounded
2
good
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
YLChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
very compact
1
brown
5
large
1
floury
1
1
excellent germination (90-100%)
unrolled
1
1
white
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
OA_M_Mpa
sun red
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
LProline_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
bronze
4
low to medium infection
very vigorous
1
4
round
CIMMYT
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GProt_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_ugmg
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StdGerm_E_1to5
CIMMYT
3
dense
AnthesisGDU
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Cmp_Cday
CIMMYT
1
shrunken
postrate
5
1
light green
5
orange
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g1000grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_DW_kgha
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoTrp_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
purple
4
high ear position
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
4
weak
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RootCapac_M_uF
CIMMYT
slightly (20%) damaged
2
weak
2
5
41-50% dead leave area
very strong
9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PVig_E_1to5
erect
1
poor
4
StemCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
absent
1
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
green
2
4
31-40% dead leaf area
2
95%
indented
2
dent
5
DMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TSCSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
short
3
red
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to5
RSucrose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
small
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
5
other
pointed
5
1
100%
mottled
7
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
normal
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
very long
5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
4
semi-dent
red
3
no dead leaf area
0
2
present
3
pale yellow
3
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
conical
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
irregular
2
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_pct
flint
1
LSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
6
orange
2
vigorous
6
51-60% dead leave area
71-80% dead leave area
8
2
grayyish white
1-10% dead leaf area
1
5
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
7
strong
3
intermediate
GRArr_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
no infestation
semi-flint
2
lax
1
straight
3
2
ear around mid-plant
2
slightly (20%) infested
1
sparse
4
spiral
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
2
7
high infection
pop
7
1
conical
2
very weak to weak
variegated
4
reddish
4
4
weak to medium
medium
2
entity
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
EarW Field weight - Measurement
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PytSRInc - Computation
Leaf abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
Abscisic acid content
LABA
PHTslB
height to insertion of first tassel branch
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
Tar spot complex severity
TSCSev
Tar spot complex severity
rolling severity
LRollSev
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
Leaf rolling severity
ug/g
Anthesis silking interval.
anthesis silking interval
ASI
Anthesis silking interval
Common smut severity
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
CSmutSev
Common smut severity
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
%
Maize stripe virus incidence
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
SilkGrwR - Computation
Standard method for silk growth rate.
GTW - Computation
Standard method for grain test weight.
GProline
Proline content
Proline content in the grain.
Grain proline content
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
ELChl
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
Anthocyanin coloration
AntCol
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
TslGlBCol
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-5 disease scoring scale
Ash content
Whole-grain ash content.
GAsh
Grain ash content
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVSev - Estimation
Leaf length.
length
Leaf length
LLng
Sorghum downy mildew severity
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
Sorghum downy mildew severity
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
Abscisic acid content
GABA
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
Grain abscisic acid content
1-5 Stem color scale
GTyp - Estimation
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
StrigaPN - Counting
GMoi
Grain moisture.
Grain moisture
moisture content
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSCInc - Computation
GLSSev - Estimation
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ppm
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
FmonSRSev
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
LGBDmg
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer damage
Fusarium ear rot severity.
Fusarium ear rot severity
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity
g/1000grain
kg/plot
LAsh- Measurement
Standard method for leaves ash content
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LateWiltInc - Computation
PsacchInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 Ear position scale
Ear damage
Ear damage
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
EDmg
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Standard method for standard germination
StdGerm - Estimation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SRInc - Computation
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonSRSev - Estimation
EH
Ear height
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
Ear shelling ratio
Shelling ratio
Shell
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Busseola incidence
BusseolaInc
Busseola damage incidence
Busseola larvae incidence.
MRDVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FmonSRInc - Computation
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
GWLostWeev
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
weight loss by maize weevil
branching type
Branching type of tassel.
TslTyp
Tassel branching type
silking time
Silking time.
Silking time
Silk
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BwSpotSev - Estimation
stand
Plant stand
PStand
Number of plants per unit area.
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Aflatox - Measurement
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
YLChl - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
Sucrose - Measurement
height
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
Plant height
PH
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GWid - Measurement
Type of grain.
type
Grain type
GTyp
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Anthesis date - Estimation
color
Color of the grain.
GCol
Grain color
Whole-grain oil content.
GOil
Oil content
Grain oil content
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
Shell - Computation
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content
GSucrose
Sucrose content in the grain
Maturity date - Estimation
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
SLodgInc - Computation
PAsp
aspect
Plant aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
PVig
Plant vigor.
vigor
Plant vigor
Glucose - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Stewarts wilt incidence
1-3 size scale
GN - Computation
Standard method for grain number.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
PLSSev
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Tillering - Counting
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
EWormDmg - Measurement
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for leaves ash content
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
EndoTrp - Measurement
DiabroticaDmg
Diabrotica damage
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Diabrotica damage
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot severity
CLSSev
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
color
LCol
Color of the leaf.
Leaf color
Rank number
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BCLSSev - Estimation
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
GIron - Measurement
1-5 Tassel opening scale
plant/plot
EAsp
aspect
Ear aspect
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
Pythium stalk rot incidence
PytSRInc
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
ear/plot
WI
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
Water index
water index
osmotic potential
Osmotic potential
OP
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
EWormInc - Counting
CTMInc
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
ELChl - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
DMVSev
Number of branches on tassel.
TslBN
Tassel branch number
number
BLSBSev - Estimation
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MRCVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ear position ratio
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
CobGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration
branch
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
ALBInc
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PpolySev - Estimation
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
day
Iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
Grain iron content
GIron
Count total number of plants per plot.
PStand - Counting
bad husk cover incidence
BHskCovInc
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
Ear bad husk cover incidence
SRInc
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
Stalk rot incidence
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
CSSSev
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
GUpSSh - Estimation
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
EHvst - Counting
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
lb/bsh
ELW
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
Ear leaf weight
weight
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
FW GY - Measurement
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRFVInc - Counting
EDmg - Estimation
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GNC - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
1-2 absent-present scale
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
LateWiltInc
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt incidence
Standard method for water index.
WI - Measurement
Root sucrose content
Sucrose content in the root.
RSucrose
Sucrose content
Ear number.
Ear number
number
EN
Growth rate of silk.
Silk growth rate
SilkGrwR
growth rate
Whole-grain Lysine content.
GLys
Grain Lysine content
Lysine content
Grain starch content
Whole-grain starch content.
GStarch
Starch content
Grain texture
texture
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex
1-3 Tassel density scale
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
cm
index
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
ERInc - Computation
Ear leaf length
length
Ear leaf (blade) length.
ELLng
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSmutInc - Counting
CobGlCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
pg/g
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
ELng
length
Ear length
Ear length.
CSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
GTex - Estimation
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Tassel exertion.
TslExer
Tassel exertion
exertion
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
WeevInc
Standard method for osmotic potential.
OP - Measurement
1-5 damage scoring scale
GYRank - Computation
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
SCMVInc
pubescence
ShtPub
Sheath pubescence
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
Tryptophan content
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
EndoTrp
Endosperm hardness.
EndoHard
hardness
Endosperm hardness
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
MSVSev
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
FusSRInc
capacitance
RootCapac
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
Root capacitance
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
Rust severity
RustSev
Rust severity
Grain width.
Grain width
width
GWid
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Ear width
width
EWid
Ear width.
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
FmonERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Brown spot severity
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
BwSpotSev
Brown spot severity
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
Turcicum leaf blight severity
EturcSev
Leaf chlorophyll content.
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
Chl
BHskCovInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
Root abscisic acid content
RABA
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Abscisic acid content
Standard method for plant uniformity
PUnif - Estimation
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
FgramERSev
DTS - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
1-3 density scale
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
Ear diameter
EDia
diameter
0-10 Senescence scale
1-9 disease scoring scale
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
Gray leaf spot severity
GLSSev
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
Gray leaf spot severity
g/100grain
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
WeevN - Counting
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
CCI
tiller/plant
RLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
RLodgInc
Root lodging incidence
root lodging incidence
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
RGY - Computation
UpESh - Estimation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
Head smut severity
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
TRustSev - Estimation
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Sen
senescence
Leaf senescence.
Senescence
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CharRInc - Computation
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FgramSRInc - Counting
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
GCol - Estimation
Chl - Measurement
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
EWormInc - Computation
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
uF
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
TslBW
weight
Tassel branch weight
Weight of tassel branches.
thickness
GThk
Grain thickness
Thickness of the grain.
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
StrigaPN
Striga plant number
Plant number
MLNSev - Estimation
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-5 Pericarp color scale
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
Black bundle incidence
AstriInc
shape
Ear shape
Ear shape
EShape
TSCSev - Estimation
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
g/plant/day
GAsh - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
Head smut incidence
Head smut incidence
HSmutInc
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
StenSRInc
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
EndoHard - Estimation
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
1-4 Ear shape scale
AflavERSev
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
DMJInc - Computation
color
Color of the endosperm.
Endosperm color
EndoCol
Whole-grain zinc content.
Grain zinc content
Zinc content
GZinc
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
PAsp - Estimation
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSTVInc - Computation
Earworm incidence
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
Earworm incidence
EWormInc
FgramERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
CharRInc
Charcoal rot incidence
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
OA
osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
FmonERSev
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Proline - Measurement
Standard method for proline content.
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
PRI - Measurement
DMJInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ChiloDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for ear shape
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for plant vigor
PVig - Estimation
Tillering
tillering
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
yyyymmdd
Tassel blasting severity
TslBlastSev
blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVInc - Counting
Grain weight
weight
GW
Grain weight of mature kernels.
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Observe color of grains.
GCol - Estimation
kg/ha
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
GMoi - Computation
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
Grain Nitrogen content
Nitrogen content
GNC
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Penicillium ear rot severity.
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity
PERSev
StdGerm
Standard germination
Standard germination.
Standard germination
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
TslExer - Estimation
Standard method for tassel exertion
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
FusERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
Tropical rust severity
mg/g
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
GVitA
Grain provitaminA content
ProvitaminA content
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
Uniformity of plants.
PUnif
uniformity
Plant uniformity
test weight
Grain test weight
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
GTW
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
GRArr - Estimation
Common rust severity
Common rust severity
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
CRustSev
SilkLng
Silk length.
Silk length
length
StenSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PHFL - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Mpa
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
SdlngDisInc
Seedling disease incidence
SilkAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
TslCol
Standard method for tassel blasting.
TslBlastSev - Estimation
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
StenSRInc - Computation
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
PytSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
BSDMInc
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
LateWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
Maize lethal necrosis severity
MLNSev
CSCInc
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
Corn stunt incidence
0-1 absent-present scale
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
harvested number
Number of ears harvested.
Ear harvested number
EHvst
PDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SilkCol
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
Anthocyanin coloration
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
UpESh
Uppermost ear shape
shape
BSDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Maize streak virus incidence
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
Maize streak virus incidence
weevil
PericCol - Estimation
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
GGlucose
Glucose content
Glucose content in the grain.
Grain glucose content
Proline content in the root.
Root proline content
RProl
Proline content
g
growth rate
EGrwR
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
Ear growth rate
PERSev - Estimation
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Adjusted GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
color
Color of the pericarp.
PericCol
Pericarp color
umol/g
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
EDia - Measurement
Grain number.
number
GN
Grain number
size
Tassel size
TslSiz
Tassel size.
Ear shelling ratio
Density of spikelets.
density
Tassel density
TslDen
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StBorDmg - Estimation
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Lysine content
Endosperm Lysine content
EndoLys
Sen - Estimation
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
Standard method for oil content
GOil - Measurement
ear leaf senescence time
Ear leaf senescence time
ELSen
Ear leaf senescence time.
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSSev - Estimation
CSmutInc
Common smut incidence
Common smut incidence
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
g/200grain
Cob glumes color
CobGlCol
color
Color of the cob glumes.
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
Days to maturity - Computation
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EturcSev - Estimation
Proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
Leaf proline content
LProline
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
FW GY - Computation
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Counting
Tryptophan content
Grain Tryptophan content
GTrp
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
SCMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
BCLSSev
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
BHskCovInc - Computation
TslAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
ShtPub - Estimation
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
1-9 Grain color scale
lodging incidence
Lodging incidence
Observation of lodging severity.
LodgInc
Glucose content in the root.
RGlucose
Glucose content
Root glucose content
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
Polysora rust severity
PpolySev
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Polysora rust severity
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
ASI - Computation
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRDVInc - Counting
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
ug/mg
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
1-5 Aleurone color scale
ng/µg
ng/g
TslSiz - Estimation
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
Stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
Leaf stomatal conductance
SCond
NIRS GOil - Measurement
NIRS method for oil content
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
LLng - Measurement
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CharRInc - Counting
Fungal disease presence
FungDis
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
Fungal disease presence
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Ear rot incidence
ERInc
Ear rot incidence.
Ear rot incidence
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
EndoProt - Measurement
GProt - Computation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
1-5 Grain texture scale
TslTyp - Estimation
Standard method for tassel type.
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Silking date - Estimation
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
cm/day
Scored for severity of lodging.
LodgInc - Estimation
¡C day
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
GTrp - Measurement
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
MCob
Multiple cob incidence
multiple cob incidence
EH - Measurement
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
1-5 rating scale
LRollSev - Estimation
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
EPo - Computation
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
OA - Measurement
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PDMInc - Computation
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Diatraea damage
Diatraea damage
DiatraeaDmg
Ant
anthesis time
Anthesis time
Anthesis time.
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
grain/plant
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMSInc - Counting
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
ELW - Measurement
Standard method for root capitance.
RootCapac - Measurement
Insertion angle of the leaves.
LErect
erectness
Leaf erectness
Weight of shelled cob.
Shelled cob weight
ShellCobW
weight or yield
MSTVInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
Relative to check - Computation
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
AstriInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-11 Grain type scale
Sucrose content
LSucrose
Sucrose content in the leaf
Leaf sucrose content
ELLng - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf length.
FusSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
NIRS Moi - Measurement
GW DW - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
Tassel opening
opening
Tassel angle.
TslOpen
1-5 Vigor scale
GLng - Measurement
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
RLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Busseola damage
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
Busseola damage
BusseolaDmg
Earworm damage
EWormDmg
Earworm damage
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SmaySev - Estimation
Aphid damage
Aphid damage
AphDmg
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
1-6 Endosperm color scale
vigor
Seedling vigor
SdlngVig
Seedling vigor.
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
mm
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
CSCMSev
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
g/plot
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BmaySev
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight severity
ELng - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
Maturity time
maturity time
Maturity time.
Mat
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
AstriInc - Computation
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
TslGlCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
FmonSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GLng
Grain length.
length
Grain length
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
GW Adjusted - Computation
Standard method for leaf color.
LCol - Estimation
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
havested number
PHvst
Plants harvested
canopy temperature
Canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
CT
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
StemCol - Estimation
Army worm damage
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
AWormDmg
Army worm damage
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Ear position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
position
EPo
Color of the aleurone.
color
AleuCol
Aleurone color
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
DW GY - Measurement
Standard method for ear growth rate.
EGrwR - Computation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
AleuCol - Estimation
mmol /m2/s
width
Leaf width.
LWid
Leaf width
Color of the stem.
Stem color
StemCol
color
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW FW - Measurement
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
MCob - Counting
LAsh
Ash content in maize leaves.
Ash content
Leaf ash content
FmonSRInc
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
StrigaDmg
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
Striga damage
Striga damage
CT - Measurement
Standard method for canopy temperature.
1-5 Leaf color scale
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
Java downy mildew incidence
DMJInc
Grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
GRN
grain row number
Text
normalized difference vegetation index
Normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
NDVI
variable_of
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
PRI
Photochemical radiation index
photochemical radiation index
Protein content
Whole-grain protein content.
Grain protein content
GProt
Ear weight
weight
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
EW
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AntAnCol - Estimation
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Aflatoxin content
Aflatoxin content
Aflatox
Chilo damage
Chilo damage
ChiloDmg
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
PHvst - Counting
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GThk - Measurement
Sucrose content
Cob sucrose content
CSucrose
Sucrose content in the cob
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AphDmg - Estimation
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
PsacchInc
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CTMInc - Computation
t/ha
GZinc - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
EN - Computation
Compute number of ears using the formula.
GRArr
Ear grain rows arrangement.
Grain row arrangement
grain row arrangement
SteWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
upper surface shape
Grain upper surface shape
GUpSSh
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
lb/plot
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
EndoCol - Estimation
CRustSev - Estimation
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TslBW - Measurement
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
DW GY - Computation
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
BLSBSev
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
EndoLys - Measurement
SRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain yield
yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
GY
husk cover
HskCov
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
Ear husk cover
1-3 Ear shape scale
1-5 Standard germination scale
Maize weevil number
Maize weevil number in Grain
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
WeevInc - Estimation
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
YLChl
Young leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew incidence
PDMInc
MCob - Computation
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
stem lodging incidence
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
SLodgInc
Stem lodging incidence
Aspergillus ear rot severity
AspERSev
Aspergillus ear rot severity
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PsacchInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
BactSRInc - Computation
ALBInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
TslOpen - Estimation
Standard method for tassel opening
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
EAsp - Estimation
1-3 Cob color scale
Protein content
Endosperm protein content
EndoProt
Protein content in grain endosperm.
PHTslB - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
ppb
method_of
scale_of
¡C
GStarch - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
row/ear
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA - Measurement
ear/plant