3
mixed
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LErect_E_1to4
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_ratio
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GOil_NIRS_pct
SLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Tillering_Ct_tllrplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Cmp_pct
1
conical
CIMMYT
MRCVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
StBorDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
unrolled
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CobGlAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g200grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
very compact
5
brown
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
YLChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GAsh_M_pct
GLng_M_mm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
reddish
1
flint
StrigaPN_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
red
3
GTW_M_lbbsh
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very strong
5
DMJInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslDen_E_1to3
CLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
Semi-flint, flint with a soft cap
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g100grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AWormDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
RustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GIron_M_ppm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RGY_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProline_M_mgg
NDVI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GZinc_M_ppm
absent or very weak
1
BLSBSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MLNSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
6
strongly pointed
spiral
4
GxE
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWid_M_mm
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Silk_Date_ymd
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SD
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_pct
4
drooping
CIMMYT
GWLostWeev_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CSmutSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StrigaDmg_E_1to5
3
weak
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMJInc_Cmp_pct
other
5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRFVInc_Ct_plntPlot
EndoHard_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to9
EW_DW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
4
semi-dent
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ASI_Cmp_day
CIMMYT
RLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_1to9
GAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SdlngDisInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AspERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RABA_M_ngg
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EHvst_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PUnif_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
low to medium infection
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SilkLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BSDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
4
Semi-dent, intermediate between dent and flint but closer to dent
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngDisInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
purple
5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Rank_number
CIMMYT
MAIZE ontology
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_pct
soft and opaque grains
5
7
high infection
CIMMYT
TslTyp_E_1to3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
UpESh_E_1to4
CIMMYT
good germination (70-89%)
2
CIMMYT
FusSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
HSmutSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSenD
ELSen_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GGlucose_M_pct
CIMMYT
ERInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
present
cylindrical
3
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SmaySev_E_1to5
white
1
0
no dead leaf area
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GNC_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EturcSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TSCSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
flint
6
pop
7
weak
4
StdGerm_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_pct
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GMoi_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_1to9
round
4
primary-secondary-tertiary
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
2
semi-flint
4
poor
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BusseolaInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CSmutSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBlastSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CSCMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LProline_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BCLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
StemCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslOpen_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very weak to weak
2
3
pale yellow
LateWiltInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELSen_DT_day
CIMMYT
DTELSen
SilkAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
entity
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProt_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
ALBInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderately (50% ) infested
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RootCapac_M_uF
CIMMYT
LAsh_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMSInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
severely rolled leaves, undesirable
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BwSpotSev_E_1to5
6
medium to high infection
CIMMYT
SRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
moderate to high level of blasting
4
2
turgid leaves
grayyish white
2
excellent germination (90-100%)
1
CIMMYT
FmonERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTA
Ant_DT_day
7
mottled
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusSRInc_Cmp_pct
EW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Ant_Date_ymd
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AD
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
ELLng_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
LABA_M_ngg
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GStarch_M_pct
CIMMYT
3
intermediate
PytSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
dent
PDMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
ChiloDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GWid_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_RelChk_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
CSCInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EGrwR_Cmp_gplntday
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_Adj_g100grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Shell_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GGlucose_M_ugmg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LWid_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HskCov_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLys_M_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoCol_E_1to6
CIMMYT
GW_FW_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
slightly (20%) damaged
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELChl_M_CCI
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StenSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Aflatox_M_ppb
1
light green
TRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PStand_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
3
moderately (50% ) damaged
PHFL_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LodgInc_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_pct
DMSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
white
1
compact
2
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GSucrose_M_umolg
CIMMYT
no infestation
1
2
cream
CIMMYT
DiabroticaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
5
very weak
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to5
GY_DW_kgha
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
8
71-80% dead leave area
1
primary
2
good
purple
4
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RSucrose_M_ngug
medium
3
CIMMYT
FungDis_E_text
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
WeevN_Ct_weevil
CIMMYT
white cap
8
CIMMYT
EW_M_gear
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MaturityGDU
Mat_Cmp_Cday
AphDmg_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
BusseolaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BmaySev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSTVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
RGlucose_M_ngug
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
StenSRInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MSVSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonSRSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
BCLSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LGBDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
medium
6
orange
CIMMYT
LRollSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FungDis_E_0to1
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GN_Cmp_grnplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AleuCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
PpolySev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EndoProt_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GThk_M_mm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
open
4
CIMMYT
PDMInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GABA_M_pgg
CIMMYT
FgramSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
200KW
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g200grn
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTrp_M_pct
CIMMYT
SCMVInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TRustSev_E_pct
no blasting
1
TSCSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BLSBSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BactSRInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CRustSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FusERSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PRI_M_idx
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
ShellCobW_FW_kgPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SmaySev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHTslB_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
bronze
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AstriInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_kgPlot
4
long
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MRCVInc_Ct_plntPlot
BHskCovInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
EN_Cmp_earplnt
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_DW_tha
CIMMYT
GOil_M_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LAsh_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FmonERSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
indented
very low infection
2
5
severly infested
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslExer_E_1to5
CIMMYT
GLSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
MLNSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FgramERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShtPub_E_1to3
CIMMYT
5
other
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AflavERSev_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PHvst_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EN_Ct_earPlot
CIMMYT
absent
1
TKW
CIMMYT
GW_DW_g1000grn
TGW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1000KW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
LateWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgha
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CRustSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSCMSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
EWormInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
AspERSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GLSSev_E_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
OP_M_Mpa
normal
3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SLodgInc_Ct_plntPlot
EShape_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SteWiltInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Sen_E_0to10
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
1
low ear position
Ant_Cmp_Cday
AnthesisGDU
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RLodgInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Mat_Date_ymd
MD
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SCond_M_mmolm2s
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LSucrose_M_mgg
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
LLng_M_cm
CIMMYT
red
3
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMVInc_Cmp_pct
conical
3
brown
4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DTM
Mat_DT_day
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTex_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CLSSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PericCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MCob_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_kgPlot
CIMMYT
GMoi_NIRS_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GY_Adj_kgha
OA_M_Mpa
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSSev_E_pct
1
hard and transparent grains
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
GCol_E_1to9
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
DMVSev_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GxE
GY_FW_lbPlot
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslBN_Ct_branch
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
very poor
5
1
1-10% dead leaf area
9
red
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
FmonSRSev_E_1to9
weak to medium
4
dark purple
3
floury
1
2
weak
EPo_E_1to3
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
DMSInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
SdlngVig_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
DiatraeaDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
3
moderate level of blasting
CobGlCol_E_1to3
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
EDmg_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EDia_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Sen_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
semi erect
2
sparse
1
DMSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EWormDmg_M_cm
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PAsp_E_1to5
CIMMYT
DMSSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PpolySev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EPo_Cmp_ratio
WI_M_idx
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
slightly (20%) infested
2
purple
3
5
pointed
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
HSmutSev_E_pct
Silk_DT_day
CIMMYT
DTS
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
MRDVInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
BHskCovInc_E_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to5
CIMMYT
CSucrose_M_umolg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
conical-cylindrical
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CharRInc_Ct_plntPlot
semi-soft and semi-opaque grains
4
CIMMYT
EndoLys_M_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PH_M_cm
CIMMYT
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GVitA_M_µgg
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
WeevInc_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TslSiz_E_1to3
yellow
4
RustSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
MSVSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_cm
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
AstriInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
FusERSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
PsacchInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslBW_DW_g
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PERSev_E_1to9
CSCInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ERInc_Ct_earPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTrp_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
dent
5
CIMMYT
GUpSSh_E_1to6
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlBAnCol_E_1to9
CIMMYT
Significantly (70%) damaged
4
AntAnCol_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
shrunken
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EAsp_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_Adj_tha
CIMMYT
4
susceptible, disease symptoms covering upto 70%
2
irregular
MSTVInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ALBInc_Cmp_pct
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
resistant, disease symptoms covering up to 20%
2
GLSSev_E_1to5
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
95%
2
CIMMYT
AntAnCol_E_1to2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELW_M_g
CIMMYT
highly susceptible, disease symptoms covering >80%
5
0
absent
3
semi open
8
very high infection
CIMMYT
BHskCovInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
TslGlAnCol_E_1to2
CIMMYT
6
medium to strong
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
EndoTrp_M_pct
1
very short
2
11-20% dead leaf area
CSmutInc_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
GW_Adj_g200grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EH_M_cm
medium
2
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RustSev_E_1to9
CIMMYT
white
1
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GY_FW_tha
CIMMYT
3
high ear position
poor germination (11-29%)
4
1
clean, no damage
1
very vigorous
2
normal
regular
1
1
erect
intermediate grain hardness
3
51-60% dead leave area
6
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CTMInc_Ct_plntPlot
CTMInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PytSRInc_Ct_plntPlot
CIMMYT
BwSpotSev_E_pct
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
2
intermediate
highly (>80%) damaged
5
orange
5
Opaque 2/QPM
9
2
green
2
secondary
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CSmutInc_Cmp_pct
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
TslGlAnCol_E_1to9
large
1
CIMMYT
MCob_Ct_plntPlot
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
EturcSev_E_1to5
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PVig_E_1to5
5
very high level of blasting
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CT_M_C
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GProt_NIRS_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ELng_M_mm
GxE
7
strong
severe infection
9
8
sweet
Significantly (70%) infested
4
3
dark green
100KW
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GW_DW_g100grn
CIMMYT
light purple
2
GRN_Ct_rowear
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
low infection
3
100%
1
straight
3
9
81-90% dead leave area
4
31-40% dead leaf area
postrate
5
3
red
5
very poor germination (0-10%)
very long
5
6
white cap
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
ShellCobW_FW_gPlot
CIMMYT
acronym
desirable
3
1
cylindrical
CIMMYT
CSSSev_E_1to9
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
PLSSev_E_1to5
dense
3
4
strong
absent
1
CIMMYT
GRArr_E_1to4
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
semi-hard and semi-transparent grains
3
small
level
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
TSCSev_E_1to9
brown
5
CIMMYT
SilkGrwR_Cmp_cmday
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
short
2
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
GTyp_E_1to11
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
Chl_M_CCI
5
medium
CIMMYT
GABA_M_ugg
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
2
yellow
8
strong to very strong
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
RProl_M_ugg
very strong
9
moderately susceptible, disease symptoms covering up to 50%
3
intermediate
3
EturcSev_E_pct
CIMMYT
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
rounded
4
3
21-30% dead leaf area
semi horizontal
3
GW_Adj_g1000grn
CIMMYT
Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
61-70% dead leave area
7
2
semi-floury (morocho), with an external layer of hard endoseprm.
2
vigorous
2
sun red
5
41-50% dead leave area
4
purple
colorless
1
2
cylindrical-conical
colorless
1
ear around mid-plant
2
1
highly resistant, clean no (%) infection
3
intermediate germination (30-69%)
variegated
4
dense
3
Kate Dreher; Rosemary Shrestha; Julian Pietragalla
CIMMYT
SmaySev_E_1to9
no infection
1
attribute
low to moderate level of blasting
2
excellent
1
5
medium infection
present
1
4
not severely rolled leaves
lax
1
1
green
ppm
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) stalk rot incidence.
Stenocarpella stalk rot incidence
StenSRInc
Observe the ears hask cover and rate it.
HskCov - Estimation
1-4 Ear shape scale
GSucrose
Sucrose content
Grain sucrose content
Sucrose content in the grain
Canopy temperature
Canopy temperature.
CT
canopy temperature
BSDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BSDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LWid - Measurement
Take same leaf measured for leaf length and measure mid-way along its length.
PH - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the top of the tassel, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
DMSev - Estimation
Observe downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Ear leaf length
ELLng
Ear leaf (blade) length.
length
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and maturity.
Growing degree days to maturity - Computation
Measure on the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GWid - Measurement
Standard method for glucose content.
Glucose - Measurement
%
Standard method for ear leaf chlorophyll content.
ELChl - Measurement
EDia - Measurement
Measure, when applicable, ear diameter at the central part of uppermost ears of at least 20 representative plants per accession.
PHTslB - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height from the base of a plant to the insertion of the first tassel branch, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
AleuCol
color
Color of the aleurone.
Aleurone color
Standard method for tassel type.
TslTyp - Estimation
Maize bushy stunt severity
Maize bushy stunt severity
CSCMSev
Maize bushy stunt (caused by mycoplasma like organism, MLO) severity.
cm/day
Observe banded leaf and sheath blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BLSBSev - Estimation
MSVInc
Maize streak virus incidence
Maize streak virus incidence (MSV) incidence.
Maize streak virus incidence
AleuCol - Estimation
Observe the aleurone color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
BCLSSev - Estimation
Observe bacterial leaf stripe severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Maize weevil incidence
WeevInc
Maize weevil incidence
Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) incidence on grain.
Standard method for proline content.
Proline - Measurement
Grain row arrangement
Ear grain rows arrangement.
grain row arrangement
GRArr
PpolySev - Estimation
Observe polysora rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
EarW Individual - Measurement
Harvest a mature upper ear and measure its weight
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis severity
Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) severity.
MLNSev
Standard method for leaves ash content
LAsh- Measurement
Army worm damage
Army worm (syn. Spodoptera exempta) damage.
Army worm damage
AWormDmg
Damage of Striga hermonthica plants on maize plants.
Striga damage
StrigaDmg
Striga damage
Count total number of plants per plot.
PStand - Counting
Observe the ears damage caused by ear rot and/or insects per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
EDmg - Estimation
Tassel branching type
branching type
TslTyp
Branching type of tassel.
RustSev
Rust severity
Rust severity
Multiple rust pathogens severity.
Date when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and record the date.
Anthesis date - Estimation
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
BCLSSev
Bacterial leaf stripe (Pseudomonas rubrilinians) severity.
Bacterial leaf stripe severity
Silk growth rate
Growth rate of silk.
SilkGrwR
growth rate
SRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Fungal disease presence
Fungal disease presence
The trait is scored for the response to the diseases caused by several fungi.
FungDis
width
Leaf width.
Leaf width
LWid
Grain test weight
Grain test weight of mature kernels.
GTW
test weight
MRFVInc
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV) incidence.
Maize rayado fino virus incidence
Polysora rust severity
Polysora rust (in lowlands Puccinia polysora) severity.
Polysora rust severity
PpolySev
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence
Ear rot incidence.
ERInc
plant/plot
GIron
Iron content
Whole-grain iron content.
Grain iron content
Measure, when applicable, ear length of at least 20 representative plants per accession, record the data in the fieldbook.
ELng - Measurement
DMSInc
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew incidence
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) incidence.
Chlorophyll content
Ear leaf chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content in the ear leaf.
ELChl
color
EndoCol
Color of the endosperm.
Endosperm color
Score the plants per plot combining several agronomical and morphological characters of plants such plant height, ear height, stem/root loading. Note: Combination of traits usually differ from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
PAsp - Estimation
DiabroticaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diabrotica per plot.
GStarch - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain starch content.
Divide the total number of FusSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FusSRInc - Computation
FungDis - Estimation
Observe the plants that are damaged by any fungal diseases.
Calculated as growing-degree units or growing degree days between sowing and 50% anthesis.
Growing degree days to anthesis - Computation
Divide the total number of SCMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SCMVInc - Computation
1-5 Endosperm hardness scale
Standard germination
Standard germination
StdGerm
Standard germination.
1-4 Grain row arrangement scale
day
Color of the stem.
Stem color
color
StemCol
mm
number
EN
Ear number.
Ear number
SdlngDisInc - Counting
Count the seedling that are affected by seedling diseases per plot.
CSCInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CSC damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Tryptophan content
Grain Tryptophan content
GTrp
Whole-grain Tryptophan content.
EturcSev - Estimation
Observe turcicum leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Multiple cob incidence
multiple cob incidence
Incidence of multiple cobs, as plants that have multiple ears arising from a single node.
MCob
Standard method for tassel opening
TslOpen - Estimation
Standard method for aflatoxin content.
Aflatox - Measurement
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
Maize rough dwarf virus incidence
MRDVInc
Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) incidence.
FusERSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PStand
Number of plants per unit area.
Plant stand
stand
EndoLys - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm lysin content.
Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration at base of tassel glumes.
Tassel glumes base Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlBCol
Downy mildews (several species of the genera Peronosclerospora, Sclerospora, and Sclerophthora) severity.
Downy mildew severity
Downy mildew severity
DMSev
1-3 size scale
1-9 disease scoring scale
Adjusted GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity.
FmonSRSev
PHFL - Measurement
Recommended to take multiple plants and measure the height between the base of a plant to the ligule of the flag leaf, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
lodging incidence
LodgInc
Observation of lodging severity.
Lodging incidence
NIRS GTrp- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
Gray leaf spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) severity.
Gray leaf spot severity
Gray leaf spot severity
GLSSev
kg/ha
Count the number plants that are damaged by busseola (african stem borer) per plot.
BusseolaInc - Counting
Observe maize lethal necrosis severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
MLNSev - Estimation
Ear position
Ear position as a ratio of ear height to plant height.
EPo
position
Standard method for whole-grain Nitrogen content
GNC - Measurement
1-5 Grain texture scale
ng/µg
Divide the total number of MSTV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MSTVInc - Computation
Tryptophan content in grain endosperm.
EndoTrp
Tryptophan content
Endosperm Tryptophan content
Protein content
GProt
Grain protein content
Whole-grain protein content.
Charcoal rot incidence
Charcoal rot incidence
CharRInc
Charcoal rot or (Macrophomina phaseolina) incidence.
EPo - Computation
Use ear height and plant height data of the same plants per plot and calculate the ratio. Small values indicate low ear position; large values indicate high ear position.
¡C day
Days to ear leaf senescence date - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Count the number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and ear leaf senescence date.
Sucrose content
Sucrose content in the cob
Cob sucrose content
CSucrose
yyyymmdd
DMJInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by DMJ per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GMoi - Computation
Measure sample weight of grains per plot after harvest, record dry weight of the same samples and calculate grain moisture content for each sample using formula: 100*(Wt of sample - Dry Weight)/Wt of sample.
0-1 absent-present scale
Root sucrose content
Sucrose content
RSucrose
Sucrose content in the root.
umol/g
Observe sorghum downy mildew severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
DMSSev - Estimation
Anther Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
AntCol
Anthocyanin coloration of anthers.
normalized difference vegetation index
NDVI
Normalized difference vegetation index
Canopy normalized difference vegetation index.
BmaySev - Estimation
Observe maydis leaf blight severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Observe brown spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
BwSpotSev - Estimation
kg/plot
SLodgInc
Stem lodging incidence. The plants that show stem lodging, i.e. those stems that are broken below the ear.
stem lodging incidence
Stem lodging incidence
ChiloDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by chilo per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Ear harvested number
EHvst
harvested number
Number of ears harvested.
1-5 damage scoring scale
PHvst - Counting
Count the total number of plants harvested per plot/entry.
GWLostWeev
Grain weight loss by maize weevil
weight loss by maize weevil
Loss of weight of the grain samples caused by weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) feeding during a given period of incubation.
Count total number of grain rows in the ear.
GCol - Estimation
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
BLSBSev
Banded leaf and sheath blight severity
Banded leaf and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani f. sp. sasakii) severity.
OA - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic adjustment.
TslSiz
size
Tassel size
Tassel size.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) severity.
DMVSev
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Maize dwarf mosaic virus severity
BactSRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by bacterial stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
g/plant/day
LErect - Estimation
Standard method for leaf erectness
Ear shelling ratio
Shelling ratio
Shell
The ratio of grain to total ear weight.
Whole-grain starch content.
Starch content
Grain starch content
GStarch
number
Grain number.
Grain number
GN
DMJInc
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew incidence
Java downy mildew (Peronosclerospora maydis) incidence.
Proline content
Proline content in the leaf.
LProline
Leaf proline content
MSVSev - Estimation
Observe the plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
LRollSev - Estimation
Observe the plants per plot with the leaves rolled.
Observation of ears with bad husk cover.
BHskCovInc - Estimation
Ear length
length
ELng
Ear length.
1-2 absent-present scale
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize streak virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSVInc - Counting
AspERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Count the total number of plants that are affected by corn stunt complex per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
CSCInc - Counting
1-5 Leaf rolling severity scale
Ear damage caused by ear rot and/or insects, etc.
Ear damage
EDmg
Ear damage
Maturity time
Mat
maturity time
Maturity time.
AflavERSev - Estimation
Observe aspergillus flavus ear rot severity on the harvested ears per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
SCMVInc
Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) incidence.
Sugarcane mosaic virus incidence
Ear shelling ratio
ppb
Observe curvularia leaf spot severity on plants per plot based on the degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CLSSev - Estimation
UpESh
shape
Shape of uppermost ear whether cylindrical or cylindrical-conical or conical or round.
Uppermost ear shape
1-5 Stem color scale
grain/plant
PRI - Measurement
Standard method for photochemical radiation index.
weight
Grain weight
GW
Grain weight of mature kernels.
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
Use formula to calculate ear sheeling ratio.
Shell - Computation
Ear growth rate
EGrwR
Growth rate of the ear(s) on a plant. It may include the sum of the apical and sub-apical ear growth from prolific plants.
growth rate
GLys - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain lysin content.
Plant damage caused by Diatraea species.
Diatraea damage
DiatraeaDmg
Diatraea damage
Divide the total number of Psacch damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PsacchInc - Computation
Count the number of plants that have more than one ear growing from the same node.
MCob - Counting
EndoTrp - Measurement
Standard method for endosperm tryptophan content.
Cob glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes.
Anthocyanin coloration
CobGlCol
Count the number of plants that are affected by black bundle per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AstriInc - Counting
Stewart wilt (Erwinia stewartii) incidence.
Stewarts wilt incidence
SteWiltInc
Stewarts wilt incidence
Aphid damage
Aphid damage
AphDmg
Aphids (Rhopalosiphum maidis) damage.
FmonSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of FmonSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MRCVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRCV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
g/100grain
g/200grain
CharRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CharRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ug/mg
1-11 Grain type scale
Standard method for tassel branches dry weight.
TslBW - Measurement
Count the number of ears.
EN - Counting
Standard method for grain test weight.
GTW - Computation
HSmutInc - Computation
Divide the total number of HSmut damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Observe common smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSmutSev - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by aphids per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
AphDmg - Estimation
Count the number of plants that show root lodging and record data in filedbook. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
RLodgInc - Counting
cm
erectness
LErect
Leaf erectness
Insertion angle of the leaves.
Aflatox
Aflatoxin content
Aflatoxin content
Grain Aflatoxins content produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus.
Number of tillers per plant.
Tillering
Tillering
tillering
Observe head smut severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
HSmutSev - Estimation
CRustSev - Estimation
Observe common rust severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Abscisic acid content
Leaf abscisic acid content
LABA
Abscisic acid content in the leaf.
PsacchInc
Sugarcane downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sacchari) incidence.
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Sugarcane downy mildew incidence
Standard method for tassel anthers Anthocyanin coloration. The observation should be made in the middle third of the main branch on fresh anthers.
AntAnCol - Estimation
CSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by the common smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Grain proline content
Proline content
GProline
Proline content in the grain.
Lysine content
Endosperm Lysine content
EndoLys
Lysine content in grain endosperm.
Ear leaf senescence time
ELSen
ear leaf senescence time
Ear leaf senescence time.
1-5 disease scoring scale
PytSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PytSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ProvitaminA content
GVitA
Whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
Grain provitaminA content
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence.
Fusarium moniliforme stalk rot incidence
FmonSRInc
YLChl - Measurement
Standard method for young leaf chlorophyll content.
Standard method for glumes tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The measurement should exclude the bases of the glumes.
TslGlAnCol - Estimation
Observe the stem color between the two topmost ears.
StemCol - Estimation
mmol /m2/s
Score the grains based on grain characters such as floury, dent per plot.
GTyp - Estimation
PDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by philippine downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Estimation of root mass at the end of the stress using an electrical capacitance meter.
capacitance
RootCapac
Root capacitance
0-10 Senescence scale
DMSInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by sorghum downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
GTex
texture
Grain texture as a measure of the variation on the intensity of a surface, quantifying properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Grain texture
TslGlBAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for glumes base tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
NIRS GOil - Measurement
NIRS method for oil content
AWormDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by army worms per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Days to anthesis - Computation
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants shed pollen. Observe a known number of plants carefully (guideline: N = 20 for inbred lines or hybrids; N = 35 for open pollinated varieties) at the same time each day until 50% of the plants in the plot have produced at least one visible anther and score the number of days from sowing. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and anthesis date.
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight severity
Turcicum leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum = Helminthosporium turcicum) severity.
EturcSev
StrigaPN
Number of Striga hermonthica plants.
Striga plant number
Plant number
1-3 density scale
Tassel Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
TslCol
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel.
Observe the pericarp color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
PericCol - Estimation
mg/g
Whole-grain Lysine content.
Lysine content
GLys
Grain Lysine content
Divide the total number of CSN damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
CSmutInc - Computation
CTMInc
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Crazy top (Sclerophthora macrospora) incidence.
Crazy top downy mildew incidence
Record the date when excised kernels are longitudinally cut to expose a black internal abscission layer at the base of the kernel that signals the kernel has ceased to absorb nutrients or moisture from the mother plants.
Maturity date - Estimation
EWormInc
Ear worm (Heliothis) incidence.
Earworm incidence
Earworm incidence
GRArr - Estimation
Observe grain row arrangement in the harvested ears and rate 1-4 categorical scale.
index
1-5 Tassel blasting severity scale
CSCInc
Corn stunt complex (corn stunt spiroplasma, maize bushy stunt phytoplasma [= mycoplasma], maize rayado fino virus) incidence.
Corn stunt incidence
Corn stunt incidence
Abscisic acid content in the root.
Root abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content
RABA
EN - Computation
Compute number of ears using the formula.
MRCVInc
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus incidence
Mal de rio cuarto virus (MRCV) incidence.
GIron - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain iron content.
CLSSev
Curvularia leaf spot (Curvularia spp.) severity.
Curvularia leaf spot severity
Curvularia leaf spot severity
ELLng - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf length.
EndoHard - Estimation
Determine quality of endosperm such as hardness in the lab and use 1-5 to scale to score it.
water index
A ratio between the reflectance at a water band wavelength to a nearby reference wavelength where there is no absorption due to water content variability.
Water index
WI
Count the number of plants that are affected by stenocarpella stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
StenSRInc - Counting
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
Stenocarpella ear rot severity
SmaySev
Stenocarpella (=Diplodia) ear rot severity.
Maydis leaf blight severity
Maydis leaf blight (Bipolaris maydis = Helminthosporium maydis) severity.
Maydis leaf blight severity
BmaySev
Grain oil content
Oil content
Whole-grain oil content.
GOil
NIRS GProt- Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain protein content.
row/ear
ERInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ears that are rotten by the total number of plants that are harvested.
Compute grain weigh adjuted to 12.5% moisture.
GW Adjusted - Computation
Chlorophyll content
YLChl
Chlorophyll content in the young leaf.
Young leaf chlorophyll content
PDMInc
Philippine downy mildew (Peronosclerospora philippinensis) incidence.
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Philippine downy mildew incidence
Ear diameter
diameter
Ear diameter measured at the central part of uppermost ear.
EDia
FgramERSev
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity.
Fusarium graminearum ear rot severity
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust severity
Tropical rust (Physopella zeae) severity.
TRustSev
Standard method for oil content
GOil - Measurement
OP - Measurement
Standard method for osmotic potential.
SteWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by stewart wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMSInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMS damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LCol - Estimation
Standard method for leaf color.
GY
yield
Grain yield
Grain yield per unit area, either field weight basis, dry weight basis or adjusted to 12.5% grain moisture.
Ash content in maize leaves.
Leaf ash content
Ash content
LAsh
Sucrose content in the leaf
Leaf sucrose content
Sucrose content
LSucrose
1-3 Tassel branching type scale
Observe plants carefully and record date when 50% of plants within a plot area have silks visible (female flowering date). This is determined on a daily basis by counting the number of plants with at least one silk extruded divided by the total number of plants in the plot.
Silking date - Estimation
blasting severity
Observation of blasting severity of the tassel (necrosis due to heat stress) at the time of flowering. It occurs under extreme temperatures and drought.
TslBlastSev
Tassel blasting severity
Divide the total numbers of plants with lodged stems by number of plants harvested.
SLodgInc - Computation
CTMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by CTM per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for grain number.
GN - Computation
ug/g
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae)incidence.
Common smut incidence
CSmutInc
Common smut incidence
PUnif
uniformity
Plant uniformity
Uniformity of plants.
1-9 Anthocyanin coloration scale
ABA - Measurement
Standard method for abscisic acid content.
LateWiltInc
Late wilt incidence
Late wilt (Cephalosporium maydis) incidence.
Late wilt incidence
PAsp
Plant aspect
aspect
Qualitative observation of plant ideotype. In another word, it rates characteristics such as plant and ear height, uniformity of plants, disease and insect damage, and lodging.
Brown spot (Physoderma maydis) severity.
Brown spot severity
Brown spot severity
BwSpotSev
PLSSev
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot (Phaeosphaeria maydis) severity.
Phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity
MSTVInc
Maize stripe virus (MSTV) incidence.
Maize stripe virus incidence
Maize stripe virus incidence
BSDMInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by brown stripe downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Standard method for whole-grain zinc content.
GZinc - Measurement
StBorDmg
Stem borer damage includes different stem borers such as Chilo partellus, Sesamia spp. and Spodoptera.
Stem borer damage
Stem borer damage
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane downy mildew per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PsacchInc - Counting
Root proline content
Proline content
RProl
Proline content in the root.
Chl - Measurement
Measured with a portable chlorophyll meter (e.g. SPAD). Take the average measure from leaves of six alternating plants and use always leaves of similar insertion level.
Silk length.
Silk length
length
SilkLng
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
DW GY - Computation
Anthesis silking interval.
ASI
anthesis silking interval
Anthesis silking interval
¡C
shape
EShape
Ear shape
Ear shape
Grain upper surface shape
upper surface shape
GUpSSh
Shape of the upper surface of grain.
Ear position ratio
Fusarium stalk rot incidence.
FusSRInc
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
Fusarium stalk rot incidence
pubescence
Sheath pubescence
ShtPub
Presence and intensity of hairs on the surface of the leaf sheath.
EWormDmg - Measurement
Standard method for earworm damage measured in cm of feeding. 0 - no ear damage, 1 - 1 cm, + 1 for each additional cm of feeding
Divide the total number of plants that are root lodged due to weak soil or poorly developed anchorage roots by the total number of plants that are harvested.
RLodgInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SteWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SteWiltInc - Computation
Observe stenocarpella ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
SmaySev - Estimation
PLSSev - Estimation
Observe phaeosphaeria leaf spot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
Ear width
EWid
width
Ear width.
SRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of SRot damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
StrigaDmg - Estimation
Observe the maize plant damage caused by striga per plot.
Grain moisture.
GMoi
moisture content
Grain moisture
Measure the thickness of the same 10 grains used for taking grain length measurement.
GThk - Measurement
Divide the total number of ALB damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ALBInc - Computation
PUnif - Estimation
Standard method for plant uniformity
MRFVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MRFV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Diabrotica damage
DiabroticaDmg
Plant damage caused by Diabrotica species.
Diabrotica damage
HSmutSev
Head smut severity
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) severity.
Head smut severity
Divide the total number of Chupon plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MCob - Computation
Nitrogen content
Grain Nitrogen content
Whole-grain Nitrogen content.
GNC
Meaure ear width.
EWid - Measurement
EShape - Estimation
Standard method for ear shape
FW GY - Computation
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in fresh (field) weight basis.
WeevN - Counting
Standard method for maize weevil number in a sample. Weevils were counted only once (at the end of a 45-d incubation period)
CobGlCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel color. The anthocyanin coloration should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
GZinc
Whole-grain zinc content.
Zinc content
Grain zinc content
CT - Measurement
Standard method for canopy temperature.
g
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and record fresh (field) weight.
FW GY - Measurement
GAsh - Measurement
Standard method for whole-grain ash content
Observe tarspot complex severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TSCSev - Estimation
NIRS GAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for whole-grain ash content
Count the number of plants that are affected by pythium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
PytSRInc - Counting
NIRS LAsh - Measurement
NIRS method for leaves ash content
Penicillium ear rot severity
Penicillium ear rot severity.
Penicillium ear rot severity
PERSev
height to insertion of first tassel branch
PHTslB
Plant height from the base to the insertion of the first tassel branch.
Plant height to insertion of first tassel branch
CSmutSev
Common smut severity
Common smut severity
Common smut (Ustilago maydis, syn. U. zeae) severity.
Tassel density
density
Density of spikelets.
TslDen
TslExer
Tassel exertion.
Tassel exertion
exertion
Standard method for water index.
WI - Measurement
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW FW - Measurement
Observe penicillium ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
PERSev - Estimation
Aspergillus ear rot severity
AspERSev
Aspergillus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus ear rot severity
FgramSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium graminearum stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
Rank number
StdGerm - Estimation
Standard method for standard germination
Tar spot complex (Phyllachora maydis, Monographella maydis) severity.
Tar spot complex severity
TSCSev
Tar spot complex severity
Number of days from sowing to when 50% of the plants silk. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and silking date.
DTS - Computation
length
Grain length.
Grain length
GLng
Count and weigh grains randomly selected from the total grains.
GW DW - Measurement
CobGlAnCol - Estimation
Standard method for cob tassel Anthocyanin coloration. The anthocyanin Anthocyanin colorationation should be observed on the middle third of the uppermost cob, after the removal of some of the grains.
Measure the leaf which subtends the uppermost ear from ligule to apex.
LLng - Measurement
silking time
Silking time.
Silking time
Silk
length
Leaf length.
Leaf length
LLng
Plant damage caused by Busseola larvae.
Busseola damage
BusseolaDmg
Busseola damage
SCond
Stomatal conductance
Leaf stomatal conductance
Stomatal conductance
color
GCol
Color of the grain.
Grain color
thickness
Grain thickness
Thickness of the grain.
GThk
Calculate shelled grain yield per unit area calculated in dry weight basis.
Dry weight basis GY - Computation
1-5 WeevDmgInc scale
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
Bacterial stalk rot incidence
BactSRInc
Bacterial stalk rot (Erwinia chrysanthemi) incidence.
Plant height from the base to the top part (in reproductive stages to the top of the tassel).
PH
Plant height
height
TslBN - Counting
Standard method for tassel branches number.
Record date when 50% of the plants have a dry ear leaf.
Ear leaf senescence date - Computation
AstriInc - Computation
Divide the total number of ASTRI damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
ERInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears that damaged or/and rotten per plot.
PRI
Photochemical radiation index. A canopy reflectance index indicating photosynthetic radiation use efficiency.
Photochemical radiation index
photochemical radiation index
Standard method for tassel Anthocyanin coloration.
TslAnCol - Estimation
TslSiz - Estimation
Score the tassels based on size using 1-3 categorical scale.
weevil
SilkLng - Measurement
Standard method for silk length.
Weight of mature upper ear, including cob and kernels, and at a defined moisture content, although often this is not provided.
EW
weight
Ear weight
EndoCol - Estimation
Observe the endosperm color, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession.
DiatraeaDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by Diatraea plot.
scale_of
Tillering - Counting
Count the number of tillers per plant (average of more than 20 representative) plants.
1-5 Anthocyanin coloration scale
LGBDmg
Large grain borer damage
Large grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus) damage.
Large grain borer damage
GLng - Measurement
Average of 10 consecutive grains from one row in the middle of the uppermost ear, measured with calliper.
pg/g
Divide the total number of ears with bad husk cover by the total number of ears harvested.
BHskCovInc - Computation
GWLostWeev - Measurement
Seed weight loss was determined using the count and weight method of Gwinner et al (1996). Weight loss (%) = (Wu x Nd) - (Wd x Nu) x 100 / Wu x (Nd + Nu) where Wu=weight of the undamaged seed, Nu = number of undamaged seed, Wd = Weight of damaged seed, and Nd=Number of damaged seed.
Osmotic adjustment as ability of the plant to adjust the osmotic potential under stress conditions.
osmotic adjustment
Osmotic adjustment
OA
Grain width.
width
GWid
Grain width
Observe dead leaf area per plant/plot and rate.
Sen - Estimation
Sucrose - Measurement
Standard method for sucrose content.
Head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) incidence.
HSmutInc
Head smut incidence
Head smut incidence
RustSev - Estimation
Observe rust severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
t/ha
Pythium stalk rot incidence
Pythium stalk rot (Pythium spp.) incidence.
PytSRInc
Pythium stalk rot incidence
ear/plot
TslExer - Estimation
Standard method for tassel exertion
Observe GLS severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GLSSev - Estimation
Standard method for whole-grain tryptophan content.
GTrp - Measurement
Standard method for ear leaf weight.
ELW - Measurement
1-5 Tassel opening scale
Glucose content
Grain glucose content
Glucose content in the grain.
GGlucose
Common rust severity
CRustSev
Common rust severity
Severity of common rust ( Puccinia sorghi).
Protein content in grain endosperm.
Protein content
EndoProt
Endosperm protein content
1-4 Leaf erectness scale
CharRInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by charcoal rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PDMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of PDM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
uF
tiller/plant
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Sorghum downy mildew (Peronosclerospora sorghi) severity.
DMSSev
Sorghum downy mildew severity
Ear leaf weight
Weight of ear leaf (blade).
ELW
weight
Score maize weevil damage on the plants per plot.
WeevInc - Estimation
Standard method for whole-grain protein content. % Protein = % of nitrogen x 6.25
GProt - Computation
1-5 Pericarp color scale
ALBInc
Anthracnose (Colletotrichum graminicola) incidence.
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
Anthracnose leaf blight incidence
PHvst
Number of plants harvested per unit area.
Plants harvested
havested number
lb/plot
weight or yield
Weight of shelled cob.
ShellCobW
Shelled cob weight
Standard method for endosperm protein content.
EndoProt - Measurement
GRN
grain row number
Grain row number
Number of grain rows in the central part of the uppermost ear.
Earworm damage
Ear worm (Heliothis) damage.
EWormDmg
Earworm damage
Root lodging incidence. The plants that show root lodging, i.e. those stems that are inclining by more than 45¡.
RLodgInc
root lodging incidence
Root lodging incidence
Stalk rot incidence
Stalk rot (multiple pathogens or an unidentified pathogen) incidence.
Stalk rot incidence
SRInc
Anthesis time.
Anthesis time
anthesis time
Ant
DW GY - Measurement
Shell the grains (kernels) from the ears harvested per plot and put grains in a paper bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried grain.
Standard method for tassel blasting.
TslBlastSev - Estimation
Optimum number of measurements: i) Vegetative stage: Weekly measurements from 2 to 6 weeks after planting; ii) Flowering: only for inbred lines.
NDVI - Measurement
lb/bsh
1-6 Grain upper surface shape scale
Count number of days from planting date to anthesis and silking to determine days to anthesis (DTA) and days to silking (DTS), respectively and determine anthesis silking interval (ASI) by calculating: ASI = DTS-DTA.
ASI - Computation
EndoHard
hardness
Endosperm hardness.
Endosperm hardness
Observe the shape of the upper surface of grain, when applicable, on at least 20 representative plants per accession, after harvest.
GUpSSh - Estimation
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity
Fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity.
FmonERSev
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and record weight. If at all possible, delay harvest of maize until its moisture content is low (15-25%).
EarW Dry weight - Measurement
g/plot
1-3 Cob color scale
StenSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of StenSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
LateWiltInc - Computation
Divide the total number of LateWilt damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FusSRInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
vigor
PVig
Plant vigor.
Plant vigor
type
GTyp
Grain type
Type of grain.
Plant height from base to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear.
EH
Ear height
height to insertion of uppermost ear
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
DMVInc
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) incidence.
Maize dwarf mosaic virus incidence
Leaf senescence.
senescence
Senescence
Sen
CSSSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection.
Count the total number of ears harvested per plot/entry, excluding secondary ears that are extremely small.
EHvst - Counting
Number of branches on tassel.
TslBN
number
Tassel branch number
DMVSev - Estimation
Observe maize dwarf mosaic virus severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
GTex - Estimation
Observe the variation of the intensity of a kernel/grain surface and score grain texture based on properties such as smoothness, coarseness and regularity of the grain.
Root glucose content
Glucose content
Glucose content in the root.
RGlucose
AstriInc
Black bundle (Acremonium strictum) incidence.
Black bundle incidence
Black bundle incidence
1-5 Standard germination scale
Harvest all ears in a plot (or row), put them in the nylon bag and dry at 60-70¡C for 1-2 days, then measure and record the weight of dried ears.
EarW Field weight - Measurement
Count the total number of emerged striga plants per plot. It is counted three times, 8 weeks, 10 weeks and 12 weeks after planting.
StrigaPN - Counting
Mpa
Grain abscisic acid content
Abscisic acid content in the grain.
Abscisic acid content
GABA
Standard method for whole-grain pro-vitaminA content.
GVitA - Measurement
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity.
CSSSev
Corn Spiroplasma stunt severity
Corn stunt spiroplasma severity
1-3 Plant uniformity scale
NIRS Moi - Measurement
Measure moisture of a grain sample using NIRS moisture analyzer.
Ash content
Grain ash content
GAsh
Whole-grain ash content.
Observe fusarium graminearum ear rot severity on ears per plot based on degree of infection.
FgramERSev - Estimation
Ear husk cover observed as degree of the husk covering the tip of the ear.
HskCov
husk cover
Ear husk cover
Tassel angle.
Tassel opening
opening
TslOpen
Standard method for tassel density
TslDen - Estimation
LateWiltInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by late wilt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 Tassel density scale
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity.
Aspergillus flavus ear rot severity
AflavERSev
Standard method for root capitance.
RootCapac - Measurement
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence
FgramSRInc
Fusarium graminearum stalk rot incidence.
Divide the total number of SeedlingDis affected plants by the total number of plants harvested.
SdlngDisInc - Computation
Anthocyanin coloration of tassel glumes excluding the bases of the glumes.
Tassel glumes Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration
TslGlCol
HSmutInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by head smut per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
TslBW
Tassel branch weight
weight
Weight of tassel branches.
ng/g
1-5 Vigor scale
Relative to check - Computation
Calculated as relative grain yield agaisnst the best check in percentage.
SCond - Measurement
Measured with a portable porometer. Take the measures in the middle between leaf tip and leaf base, and in between leaf midrib and leaf rim. Blade sections measured must to be exposed to sunlight for at least the 30 minutes before. Measurements always performed in the same side of the leaf (usually the lower or abaxial one). One measurement per leaf, and at least 3 per plot. 1 min per measurement.
Divide the total number of FgramSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
FgramSRInc - Computation
BusseolaInc
Busseola damage incidence
Busseola larvae incidence.
Busseola incidence
g/1000grain
1-5 rating scale
Color of the leaf.
LCol
color
Leaf color
Seedling disease incidence.
Seedling disease incidence
Seedling disease incidence
SdlngDisInc
OP
Osmotic potential
osmotic potential
A measure of the potential of water to move between regions of differing concentrations across a water-permeable membrane.
Divide the total number of MRDV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
MRDVInc - Computation
1-9 Grain color scale
CTMInc - Computation
Divide the total number of CTM damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
PericCol
Color of the pericarp.
Pericarp color
color
CCI
Plant height from the base to the ligule of the flag leaf.
height to ligule of the flag leaf
Plant height to ligule of the flag leaf
PHFL
Count the number of plants that are affected by anthracnose leaf blight per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
ALBInc - Counting
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize rough dwarf virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRDVInc - Counting
MSVSev
Maize streak virus severity (MSV) severity.
Maize streak virus severity
Maize streak virus severity
UpESh - Estimation
Observe shape of uppermost ear.
Observe tropical severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
TRustSev - Estimation
Days to maturity - Computation
Number of days required from seeding to grain ripening. Also, it can be calculated using sowing and maturity date.
method_of
1-5 Tassel exertion scale
Count the number of plants that are affected by mal de rio cuarto virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRCVInc - Counting
SilkCol
Anthocyanin coloration
Silk Anthocyanin coloration
Anthocyanin coloration of stigmas.
Seedling vigor
vigor
Seedling vigor.
SdlngVig
It is calculated as the numerical position of the progeny when yields are arrenged from highest to lowest.
GYRank - Computation
Standard method for silk Anthocyanin coloration.
SilkAnCol - Estimation
MSVInc - Computation
Divide the total number of MSV damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
1-5 Leaf color scale
BactSRInc - Computation
Divide the total number of BactSR damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize bushy stunt per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MRFVInc - Counting
Standard method for sheath pubescence content.
ShtPub - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme ear rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
FmonERSev - Estimation
FmonSRSev - Estimation
Observe fusarium moniliforme stalk rot severity on plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
rolling severity
LRollSev
Leaf rolling severity
Severity of leaf rolling, usually scored under drought stress.
Record shelled cob field weight.
ShellCobW - Measurement (duplicate)
Standard method for plant vigor
PVig - Estimation
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
BSDMInc
Brown stripe downy mildew (Sclerophthora rayssiae var. zeae) incidence.
Brown stripe downy mildew incidence
Text
1-3 Ear shape scale
EWormInc - Counting
Count the number of ear damage caused by earworm per plot.
EAsp - Estimation
Harvest ears per plot (eliminate first and last plants to avoid border effects) and score ear aspect combining several ear-associated traits. Note: Combination of traits usually differs from one breeder to another depending on type of study.
SilkGrwR - Computation
Standard method for silk growth rate.
DMJInc - Computation
Divide the total number of DMJ damaged plants by the total number of plants harvested.
Chlorophyll content
Chlorophyll content
Chl
Leaf chlorophyll content.
LodgInc - Estimation
Scored for severity of lodging.
ear/plant
BHskCovInc
bad husk cover incidence
Ears bad husk cover incidence.
Ear bad husk cover incidence
Chilo damage
Chilo (Chilo partellus) damage.
ChiloDmg
Chilo damage
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize dwarf mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
DMVInc - Counting
Maize weevil number
Maize weevil number in Grain
The number of maize weevils (Sitophilus zeamais) hatching and emerging from an infested grain sample within a given period. Large values indicate susceptibility to grain weevils, small values indicate partial resistance to grain weevils.
WeevN
BHskCovInc - Counting
Count the total number of ears with bad husk cover.
Observe maize busy stunt severity on the plants per plot based on degree of infection (relative or absolute area of plant tissue affected by disease).
CSCMSev - Estimation
1-5 Aleurone color scale
1-6 Endosperm color scale
Divide the total number of EWDMG damaged ears by the total number of plants harvested.
EWormInc - Computation
LGBDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by large grain borer per plot
Observe color of grains.
GCol - Estimation
EH - Measurement
Recommended to take 6 alternating plants per plot and measure the height between the base of a plant to the insertion of the top (uppermost) ear of the same plant, enter the data individually in the FieldBook and calculate the average.
Standard method for ear growth rate.
EGrwR - Computation
Fusarium ear rot severity.
FusERSev
Fusarium ear rot severity
Fusarium ear rot severity
branch
Count the number of plants that are affected by sugarcane mosaic virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
SCMVInc - Counting
Count the plants that are affected by fusarium moniliforme stalk rot per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
FmonSRInc - Counting
Relative grain yield expressed as percentage of the mean grain yield of the trial. Values above 100% indicate above-average performance; values below 100% indicate below-average performance.
RGY - Computation
SLodgInc - Counting
Count the number of plants with the stem lodged. The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
1-3 Ear position scale
variable_of
Color of the cob glumes.
CobGlCol
color
Cob glumes color
Determine ear position using 1-3 scale.
EPo - Estimation
StBorDmg - Estimation
Observe the plant damage caused by stem borer per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
aspect
Observation of harvested ears based on some morphological and agronomical characters such as ear size, total numbers of ear harvested per plot, ear damaged caused by insects or/and diseases.
EAsp
Ear aspect
Count the number of plants that are affected by maize stripe virus per plot. Note: The first and the last plants are eliminated to avoid border effects.
MSTVInc - Counting